Center for Alzheimer's and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Research Output 1987 2019

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2019
8 Citations (Scopus)

Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy have distinct -synuclein seed characteristics

Yamasaki, T. R., Holmes, B. B., Furman, J. L., Dhavale, D. D., Su, B. W., Song, E. S., Cairns, N. J., Kotzbauer, P. T. & Diamond, M. I., Jan 1 2019, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294, 3, p. 1045-1058 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Synucleins
Multiple System Atrophy
Parkinson Disease
Seed
Seeds

Propagation of protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases

Vaquer-Alicea, J. & Diamond, M. I., Jun 20 2019, In : Annual Review of Biochemistry. 88, p. 785-810 26 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Neurodegenerative diseases
Amyloidogenic Proteins
Prions
Amyloid
Neurodegenerative Diseases

Tau local structure shields an amyloid-forming motif and controls aggregation propensity

Chen, D., Drombosky, K. W., Hou, Z., Sari, L., Kashmer, O. M., Ryder, B. D., Perez, V. A., Woodard, D. N. R., Lin, M. M., Diamond, M. I. & Joachimiak, L. A., Dec 1 2019, In : Nature communications. 10, 1, 2493.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
nervous system disorder
disease control
peptide
computer simulation
recombination
2018
4 Citations (Scopus)

Amyloid fibrils embodying distinctive yeast prion phenotypes exhibit diverse morphologies

Ghosh, R., Dong, J., Wall, J. & Frederick, K. K., Sep 1 2018, In : FEMS Yeast Research. 18, 6

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prions
Amyloid
Yeasts
Phenotype
Molecular Structure

DNP-Assisted NMR Investigation of Proteins at Endogenous Levels in Cellular Milieu

Costello, W. N., Xiao, Y. & Frederick, K. K., Jan 1 2018, (Accepted/In press) In : Methods in Enzymology.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Polarization
Proteins
Biomolecules
25 Citations (Scopus)

Inert and seed-competent tau monomers suggest structural origins of aggregation

Mirbaha, H., Chen, D., Morazova, O. A., Ruff, K. M., Sharma, A. M., Liu, X., Goodarzi, M., Pappu, R. V., Colby, D. W., Mirzaei, H., Joachimiak, L. A. & Diamond, M. I., Jul 10 2018, In : eLife. 7, e36584.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Seed
Seeds
Agglomeration
Monomers
Tauopathies
21 Citations (Scopus)

Profilin reduces aggregation and phase separation of huntingtin N-terminal fragments by preferentially binding to soluble monomers and oligomers

Posey, A. E., Ruff, K. M., Harmon, T. S., Crick, S. L., Li, A., Diamond, M. I. & Pappu, R. V., Jan 1 2018, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 293, 10, p. 3734-3746 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Profilins
Oligomers
Phase separation
Agglomeration
Monomers
17 Citations (Scopus)

Specific glycosaminoglycan chain length and sulfation patterns are required for cell uptake of tau versus -synuclein and -amyloid aggregates

Stopschinski, B. E., Holmes, B. B., Miller, G. M., Manon, V. A., Vaquer-Alicea, J., Prueitt, W. L., Hsieh-Wilson, L. C. & Diamond, M. I., Jan 1 2018, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 293, 27, p. 10826-10840 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Synucleins
Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
Glycosaminoglycans
Chain length
Amyloid
7 Citations (Scopus)

Tau monomer encodes strains

Sharma, A. M., Thomas, T. L., Woodard, D. N. R., Kashmer, O. M. & Diamond, M. I., Dec 11 2018, In : eLife. 7

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tauopathies
Seeds
Monomers
Prions
Brain Diseases
22 Citations (Scopus)

Tau seeding activity begins in the transentorhinal/entorhinal regions and anticipates phospho-tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease and PART

Kaufman, S. K., Del Tredici, K., Thomas, T. L., Braak, H. & Diamond, M. I., May 11 2018, (Accepted/In press) In : Acta Neuropathologica. p. 1-11 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tauopathies
Neurofibrillary Tangles
Alzheimer Disease
Entorhinal Cortex
Locus Coeruleus
2017
7 Citations (Scopus)

Aggregation and Fibril Structure of AβM01-42 and Aβ1-42

Silvers, R., Colvin, M. T., Frederick, K. K., Jacavone, A. C., Lindquist, S., Linse, S. & Griffin, R. G., Sep 12 2017, In : Biochemistry. 56, 36, p. 4850-4859 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Methionine
Agglomeration
Peptides
Magic angle spinning
Kinetics
9 Citations (Scopus)

Cellular models for the study of prions

Holmes, B. B. & Diamond, M. I., Feb 1 2017, In : Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 7, 2, a024026.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prions
Neurodegenerative diseases
Biosensing Techniques
Biosensors
Neurodegenerative Diseases
21 Citations (Scopus)

Characterization of tau prion seeding activity and strains from formaldehyde-fixed tissue

Kaufman, S. K., Thomas, T. L., Del Tredici, K., Braak, H. & Diamond, M. I., Jun 7 2017, In : Acta neuropathologica communications. 5, 1, 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prions
Formaldehyde
Tauopathies
Pathology
Seeds
18 Citations (Scopus)

Combining DNP NMR with segmental and specific labeling to study a yeast prion protein strain that is not parallel in-register

Frederick, K. K., Michaelis, V. K., Caporini, M. A., Andreas, L. B., Debelouchina, G. T., Griffin, R. G. & Lindquist, S., Apr 4 2017, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114, 14, p. 3642-3647 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fungal Proteins
Amyloid
Proteins
Prion Proteins
10 Citations (Scopus)

Novel human neuronal tau model exhibiting neurofibrillary tangles and transcellular propagation

Reilly, P., Winston, C. N., Baron, K. R., Trejo, M., Rockenstein, E. M., Akers, J. C., Kfoury, N., Diamond, M., Masliah, E., Rissman, R. A. & Yuan, S. H., Oct 1 2017, In : Neurobiology of Disease. 106, p. 222-234 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Neurofibrillary Tangles
Tauopathies
Pathology
Exosomes
80 Citations (Scopus)

Tau reduction prevents neuronal loss and reverses pathological tau deposition and seeding in mice with tauopathy

DeVos, S. L., Miller, R. L., Schoch, K. M., Holmes, B. B., Kebodeaux, C. S., Wegener, A. J., Chen, G., Shen, T., Tran, H., Nichols, B., Zanardi, T. A., Kordasiewicz, H. B., Swayze, E. E., Bennett, C. F., Diamond, M. I. & Miller, T. M., Jan 25 2017, In : Science Translational Medicine. 9, 374, eaag0481.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tauopathies
Antisense Oligonucleotides
Spinal Cord
Pathology
Brain

The CNS in inbred transgenic models of 4-repeat Tauopathy develops consistent tau seeding capacity yet focal and diverse patterns of protein deposition

Eskandari-Sedighi, G., Daude, N., Gapeshina, H., Sanders, D. W., Kamali-Jamil, R., Yang, J., Shi, B., Wille, H., Ghetti, B., Diamond, M. I., Janus, C. & Westaway, D., Oct 4 2017, In : Molecular Neurodegeneration. 12, 1, 72.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tauopathies
Transgenic Mice
Transgenes
Proteins
Pathology
28 Citations (Scopus)

Ultrasensitive and selective detection of 3-repeat tau seeding activity in Pick disease brain and cerebrospinal fluid

Saijo, E., Ghetti, B., Zanusso, G., Oblak, A., Furman, J. L., Diamond, M. I., Kraus, A. & Caughey, B., May 1 2017, In : Acta Neuropathologica. 133, 5, p. 751-765 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pick Disease of the Brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Alzheimer Disease
Tauopathies
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
2016
12 Citations (Scopus)

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate Aβ-induced oxidative stress and hypercontractility in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

Reynolds, M. R., Singh, I., Azad, T. D., Holmes, B. B., Verghese, P. B., Dietrich, H. H., Diamond, M., Bu, G., Han, B. H. & Zipfel, G. J., Jan 22 2016, In : Molecular Neurodegeneration. 11, 1, 9.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
Vascular Smooth Muscle
Smooth Muscle Myocytes
Oxidative Stress
Pharmacology
154 Citations (Scopus)

Neuronal activity enhances tau propagation and tau pathology in vivo

Wu, J. W., Hussaini, S. A., Bastille, I. M., Rodriguez, G. A., Mrejeru, A., Rilett, K., Sanders, D. W., Cook, C., Fu, H., Boonen, R. A. C. M., Herman, M., Nahmani, E., Emrani, S., Figueroa, Y. H., Diamond, M. I., Clelland, C. L., Wray, S. & Duff, K. E., Aug 1 2016, In : Nature Neuroscience. 19, 8, p. 1085-1092 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tauopathies
Alzheimer Disease
Optogenetics
Pathology
tau Proteins
34 Citations (Scopus)

Prions and Protein Assemblies that Convey Biological Information in Health and Disease

Sanders, D. W., Kaufman, S. K., Holmes, B. B. & Diamond, M. I., Feb 3 2016, In : Neuron. 89, 3, p. 433-448 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prions
Health
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Proteins
Macromolecular Substances
103 Citations (Scopus)

Tau Prion Strains Dictate Patterns of Cell Pathology, Progression Rate, and Regional Vulnerability In Vivo

Kaufman, S. K., Sanders, D. W., Thomas, T. L., Ruchinskas, A. J., Vaquer-Alicea, J., Sharma, A. M., Miller, T. M. & Diamond, M. I., Nov 23 2016, In : Neuron. 92, 4, p. 796-812 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tauopathies
Prions
Pathology
Brain
Neurodegenerative Diseases
28 Citations (Scopus)

Widespread tau seeding activity at early Braak stages

Furman, J. L., Vaquer-Alicea, J., White, C. L., Cairns, N. J., Nelson, P. T. & Diamond, M. I., Nov 22 2016, (Accepted/In press) In : Acta Neuropathologica. p. 1-10 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tauopathies
Alzheimer Disease
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
Parietal Lobe
Frontal Lobe
2015
45 Citations (Scopus)

Distinct therapeutic mechanisms of Tau antibodies: Promoting microglial clearance versus blocking neuronal uptake

Funk, K. E., Mirbaha, H., Jiang, H., Holtzman, D. M. & Diamond, M. I., Aug 28 2015, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290, 35, p. 21652-21662 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Antibodies
Alzheimer Disease
Microglia
Pathology
Therapeutics
33 Citations (Scopus)

N17 Modifies Mutant Huntingtin Nuclear Pathogenesis and Severity of Disease in HD BAC Transgenic Mice

Gu, X., Cantle, J. P., Greiner, E. R., Lee, C. Y. D., Barth, A. M., Gao, F., Park, C. S., Zhang, Z., Sandoval-Miller, S., Zhang, R. L., Diamond, M., Mody, I., Coppola, G. & Yang, X. W., Feb 18 2015, In : Neuron. 85, 4, p. 726-741 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Huntington Disease
Transgenic Mice
Pathology
Corpus Striatum
Weight Loss
36 Citations (Scopus)

Photo-activatable Cre recombinase regulates gene expression in vivo

Schindler, S. E., McCall, J. G., Yan, P., Hyrc, K. L., Li, M., Tucker, C. L., Lee, J. M., Bruchas, M. R. & Diamond, M. I., Sep 9 2015, In : Scientific Reports. 5, 13627.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gene Expression
Lighting
Brain
Optogenetics
Optical Fibers
84 Citations (Scopus)

Propagation of prions causing synucleinopathies in cultured cells

Woerman, A. L., Stöhr, J., Aoyagi, A., Rampersaud, R., Krejciova, Z., Watts, J. C., Ohyama, T., Patel, S., Widjaja, K., Oehler, A., Sanders, D. W., Diamond, M. I., Seeley, W. W., Middleton, L. T., Gentleman, S. M., Mordes, D. A., Südhof, T. C., Giles, K. & Prusiner, S. B., Sep 1 2015, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112, 35, p. E4949-E4958

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prions
Cultured Cells
Synucleins
Multiple System Atrophy
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
16 Citations (Scopus)

Sensitive detection of proteopathic seeding activity with FRET flow cytometry

Furman, J. L., Holmes, B. B. & Diamond, M. I., Dec 8 2015, In : Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2015, 106, e53205.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
Flow cytometry
Seed
Seeds
Flow Cytometry
63 Citations (Scopus)

Sensitivity-Enhanced NMR Reveals Alterations in Protein Structure by Cellular Milieus

Frederick, K. K., Michaelis, V. K., Corzilius, B., Ong, T. C., Jacavone, A. C., Griffin, R. G. & Lindquist, S., Oct 22 2015, In : Cell. 163, 3, p. 620-628 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cellular Structures
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Polarization
Proteins
7 Citations (Scopus)

Subcellular localization and Ser-137 phosphorylation regulate tumor-suppressive activity of Profilin-1

Diamond, M. I., Cai, S., Boudreau, A., Carey, C. J., Lyle, N., Pappu, R. V., Swamidass, S. J., Bissell, M., Piwnica-Worms, H. & Shao, J., Apr 3 2015, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290, 14, p. 9075-9086 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Profilins
Phosphorylation
Tumors
Neoplasms
Cell growth
78 Citations (Scopus)

Tau trimers are the minimal propagation unit spontaneously internalized to seed intracellular aggregation

Mirbaha, H., Holmes, B. B., Sanders, D. W., Bieschke, J. & Diamond, M. I., Jun 12 2015, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290, 24, p. 14893-14903 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Seed
Seeds
Agglomeration
Alzheimer Disease
Brain
62 Citations (Scopus)

The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate prevents the aggregation of tau protein into toxic oligomers at substoichiometric ratios

Wobst, H. J., Sharma, A., Diamond, M. I., Wanker, E. E. & Bieschke, J., Feb 2 2015, In : FEBS Letters. 589, 1, p. 77-83 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

tau Proteins
Poisons
Polyphenols
Tea
Oligomers
2014
44 Citations (Scopus)

Distinct prion strains are defined by amyloid core structure and chaperone binding site dynamics

Frederick, K. K., Debelouchina, G. T., Kayatekin, C., Dorminy, T., Jacavone, A. C., Griffin, R. G. & Lindquist, S., Feb 20 2014, In : Chemistry and Biology. 21, 2, p. 295-305 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prions
Amyloid
Binding Sites
Phenotype
Magic angle spinning
365 Citations (Scopus)

Distinct tau prion strains propagate in cells and mice and define different tauopathies

Sanders, D. W., Kaufman, S. K., DeVos, S. L., Sharma, A. M., Mirbaha, H., Li, A., Barker, S. J., Foley, A. C., Thorpe, J. R., Serpell, L. C., Miller, T. M., Grinberg, L. T., Seeley, W. W. & Diamond, M. I., Jun 18 2014, In : Neuron. 82, 6, p. 1271-1288 18 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tauopathies
Prions
Pathology
Amyloid
Transgenic Mice
6 Citations (Scopus)

Inhibition of the androgen receptor by mineralocorticoids at levels physiologically achieved in serum in patients treated with abiraterone acetate

Kim, W., Jones, J. O., Diamond, M., Haqq, C., Molina, A., Small, E. J. & Ryan, C. J., 2014, In : Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 17, 3, p. 292-299 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mineralocorticoids
Androgen Receptors
Serum
Prostatic Neoplasms
Androgens
8 Citations (Scopus)

Orientation of aromatic residues in amyloid cores: Structural insights into prion fiber diversity

Reymer, A., Frederick, K. K., Rocha, S., Beke-Somfai, T., Kitts, C. C., Lindquist, S. & Nordén, B., Dec 2 2014, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111, 48, p. 17158-17163 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prions
Amyloid
Tyrosine
Spectrum Analysis
Proteins
48 Citations (Scopus)

Prion-like nuclear aggregation of TDP-43 during heat shock is regulated by HSP40/70 chaperones

Udan-Johns, M., Bengoechea, R., Bell, S., Shao, J., Diamond, M. I., True, H. L., Weihl, C. C. & Baloh, R. H., Jan 2014, In : Human Molecular Genetics. 23, 1, p. 157-170 14 p., ddt408.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prions
Shock
Hot Temperature
Yeasts
Muscle Proteins
86 Citations (Scopus)

Prion-like properties of Tau protein: The importance of extracellular Tau as a therapeutic target

Holmes, B. B. & Diamond, M. I., 2014, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289, 29, p. 19855-19861 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

tau Proteins
Prions
Synucleins
Neurodegenerative diseases
Agglomeration
136 Citations (Scopus)

Proteopathic tau seeding predicts tauopathy in vivo

Holmes, B. B., Furman, J. L., Mahan, T. E., Yamasaki, T. R., Mirbaha, H., Eades, W. C., Belaygorod, L., Cairns, N. J., Holtzman, D. M. & Diamond, M. I., Oct 14 2014, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111, 41, p. E4376-E4385

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tauopathies
Synucleins
Seeds
Pathology
Alzheimer Disease
2013
5 Citations (Scopus)

Advances in diagnostic testing for Alzheimer disease.

Schindler, S. E., McConathy, J., Ances, B. M. & Diamond, M. I., Sep 2013, In : Missouri Medicine. 110, 5, p. 401-405 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Alzheimer Disease
Deoxyglucose
Amyloid
Positron-Emission Tomography
Cerebrospinal Fluid
33 Citations (Scopus)

An N-terminal nuclear export signal regulates trafficking and aggregation of huntingtin (Htt) protein exon 1

Zheng, Z., Li, A., Holmes, B. B., Marasa, J. C. & Diamond, M. I., Mar 1 2013, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288, 9, p. 6063-6071 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nuclear Export Signals
Cell Nucleus Active Transport
Exons
Agglomeration
Toxicity
265 Citations (Scopus)

Anti-tau antibodies that block tau aggregate seeding invitro markedly decrease pathology and improve cognition in vivo

Yanamandra, K., Kfoury, N., Jiang, H., Mahan, T. E., Ma, S., Maloney, S. E., Wozniak, D. F., Diamond, M. I. & Holtzman, D. M., Oct 16 2013, In : Neuron. 80, 2, p. 402-414 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cognition
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies
Biosensing Techniques
Pathology
Tauopathies

Erratum to Anti-Tau antibodies that block tau aggregate seeding invitro markedly decrease pathology and improve cognition in vivo [Neuron, 74, (2012), 227-245]

Yanamandra, K., Kfoury, N., Jiang, H., Mahan, T., Ma, S., Maloney, S., Wozniak, D., Diamond, M. & Holtzman, D., Dec 18 2013, In : Neuron. 80, 6, p. 1572 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cognition
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies
Pathology
Neurons
278 Citations (Scopus)

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate internalization and propagation of specific proteopathic seeds

Holmes, B. B., DeVos, S. L., Kfoury, N., Li, M., Jacks, R., Yanamandra, K., Ouidja, M. O., Brodsky, F. M., Marasa, J., Bagchi, D. P., Kotzbauer, P. T., Miller, T. M., Papy-Garcia, D. & Diamond, M. I., Aug 13 2013, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110, 33

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
Seeds
Synucleins
Heparin
Chlorates
25 Citations (Scopus)

Intravitreal Administration of HA-1077, a ROCK Inhibitor, Improves Retinal Function in a Mouse Model of Huntington Disease

Li, M., Yasumura, D., Ma, A. A. K., Matthes, M. T., Yang, H., Nielson, G., Huang, Y., Szoka, F. C., LaVail, M. M. & Diamond, M. I., Feb 11 2013, In : PLoS One. 8, 2, e56026.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

rho-Associated Kinases
Huntington Disease
Neurodegenerative diseases
phosphotransferases (kinases)
animal models

Introduction

Diamond, M. I., Jul 2013, In : Neurotherapeutics. 10, 3, p. 369-370 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Proteostasis Deficiencies
Nervous System Diseases
Proteins
119 Citations (Scopus)

Mechanisms of protein seeding in neurodegenerative diseases

Walker, L. C., Diamond, M. I., Duff, K. E. & Hyman, B. T., Mar 2013, In : JAMA Neurology. 70, 3, p. 304-310 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Neurodegenerative Diseases
Cell Movement
Disease Progression
Seeds
Proteins
20 Citations (Scopus)

Prion-Like Propagation of Protein Aggregation and Related Therapeutic Strategies

Kaufman, S. K. & Diamond, M. I., Jul 2013, In : Neurotherapeutics. 10, 3, p. 371-382 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prions
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Proteins
Pathology
Therapeutics
2012
11 Citations (Scopus)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and organ donation: Is there risk of disease transmission?

Holmes, B. B. & Diamond, M. I., Dec 2012, In : Annals of Neurology. 72, 6, p. 832-836 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tissue and Organ Procurement
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Tissue and Organ Harvesting
Tissue Transplantation
27 Citations (Scopus)

An aggregation sensing reporter identifies leflunomide and teriflunomide as polyglutamine aggregate inhibitors

Fuentealba, R. A., Marasa, J., Diamond, M. I., Piwnica-Worms, D. & Weihl, C. C., Feb 2012, In : Human Molecular Genetics. 21, 3, p. 664-680 17 p., ddr500.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

leflunomide
Proteins
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Firefly Luciferases
Uridine