14-3-3s are potential biomarkers for HIV-related neurodegeneration

Diana Morales, Efthimios C M Skoulakis, Summer F. Acevedo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Over the last decade, it has become evident that 14-3-3 proteins are essential for primary cell functions. These proteins are abundant throughout the body, including the central nervous system and interact with other proteins in both cell cycle and apoptotic pathways. Examination of cerebral spinal fluid in humans suggests that 14-3-3s including 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) are up-regulated in several neurological diseases, and loss or duplication of the YWHAE gene leads to Miller-Dieker syndrome. The goal of this review is to examine the utility of 14-3-3s as a marker of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-dependent neurodegeneration and also as a tool to track disease progression. To that end, we describe mechanisms implicating 14-3-3s in neurological diseases and summarize evidence of its interactions with HIV accessory and co-receptor proteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)341-353
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of NeuroVirology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2012


  • 14-3-3
  • GPR15
  • Gp120
  • HIV accessory proteins
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Nef
  • Neurocognition
  • Vpr
  • Vpu

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Virology


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