The splenic microenvironment regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function, particularly during demand-adapted hematopoiesis; however, practical strategies to enhance splenic support of transplanted HSPCs have proved elusive. We have previously demonstrated that inhibiting 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), using the small molecule (+)SW033291 (PGDHi), increases BM prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, expands HSPC numbers, and accelerates hematologic reconstitution after BM transplantation (BMT) in mice. Here we demonstrate that the splenic microenvironment, specifically 15-PGDH high-expressing macrophages, megakaryocytes (MKs), and mast cells (MCs), regulates steady-state hematopoiesis and potentiates recovery after BMT. Notably, PGDHi-induced neutrophil, platelet, and HSPC recovery were highly attenuated in splenectomized mice. PGDHi induced nonpathologic splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis at steady state, and pretransplant PGDHi enhanced the homing of transplanted cells to the spleen. 15-PGDH enzymatic activity localized specifically to macrophages, MK lineage cells, and MCs, identifying these cell types as likely coordinating the impact of PGDHi on splenic HSPCs. These findings suggest that 15-PGDH expression marks HSC niche cell types that regulate hematopoietic regeneration. Therefore, PGDHi provides a well-tolerated strategy to therapeutically target multiple HSC niches, promote hematopoietic regeneration, and improve clinical outcomes of BMT.
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