Adjuvant arthritis (AA, also referred to as adjuvant polyarthritis, adjuvant induced arthritis, or adjuvant disease) is an experimental disorder unique to rats. Characteristically, 10–14 days after the injection of adjuvant, swelling, warmth, erythema, and tenderness appear in distal joints and tendons of affected animals. Maximum severity usually occurs between post adjuvant days 16 and 21, and the acute inflammation then gradually subsides over the ensuing weeks. In some cases, the arthritis can follow an undulating course for many weeks. AA is widely used for studying the physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology of inflammation and as a model of cell-mediated auto-immune disease, human arthritis, and chronic pain. The term Freund's (type) adjuvant generally refers to those adjuvants composed of either dried bacteria or bacterial cell wall constituents in an oily vehicle, with or without an emulsifier. Such adjuvants enhance both humoral and cell-mediated responses to a variety of antigens. It is adjuvants of the Freund's type that induce chronic polyarthritis in rats; other types of immunological adjuvants, such as mineral earths, endotoxins, polynucleotides, methylated albumin, and calcium alginate, are not by themselves arthritogenic.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology