The epidermis expresses cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochromes P450, which utilize arachidonic acid to generate a diverse array of lipid mediators affecting epidermal cellular differentiation and functions. Recent studies show that mouse epidermis expresses CYP2B19, a keratinocyte-specific epoxygenase that generates 11,12- and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic (EET) acids from arachidonate. We studied CYP2B19-dependent metabolism in mouse epidermal microsomes, reconstituted in the presence of [1-14C]arachidonic acid. The majority of the 14C products formed independently of NADPH, indicative of robust epidermal cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. We studied two NADPH-dependent products generated in a highly reproducible manner from arachidonate. One of these (product I) coeluted with the CYP2B19 product 14,15-EET on a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system; there was no evidence for other regioisomeric EET products. Further analyses proved that product I was not an epoxy fatty acid, based on different retention times on a normal-phase HPLC system and failure of product I to undergo hydrolysis in acidic solution. We analyzed purified epidermal 14C products by liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Structures of the NADPH-dependent products were confirmed to be 12-oxo-5,8,14-eicosatrienoic acid (I) and 12-hydroxy-5,8,14- eicosatrienoic acid (II). This was the first evidence for a 12-hydroxy-5,8,14- eicosatrienoic acid biosynthetic pathway in mouse epidermis. Epidermal microsomes also generated 12-hydroperoxy, 12-hydroxy, and 12-oxo eicosatetraenoic acids from arachidonate, possible intermediates in the 12-hydroxy-5,8,14-eicosatrienoic acid biosynthetic pathway. These results predict that hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids are synthesized from arachidonate in human epidermis. This would have important implications for human skin diseases given the known pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of stereo- and regioisomeric hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2006|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine