Botulinum toxin has been used in medicine for the past 30 years. However, there continues to be controversy about the appropriate uses and dosing, especially in the pediatric population. A panel of nine pediatric physiatrists from different regions and previous training programs in the United States were nominated based on institutional reputation and botulinum toxin (BoNT) experience. Based on a review of the current literature, the goal was to provide the rationale for recommendations on the administration of BoNT in the pediatric population. The goal was not only to review safety, dosing, and injection techniques but also to develop a consensus on the appropriate uses in the pediatric population. In addition to upper and lower limb spasticity, the consensus also provides recommendations for congenital muscular torticollis, cervical dystonia, sialorrhea, and brachial plexus palsies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
- Clinical Neurology