A mixed methods study of satisfaction with justice and desire for revenge in survivors of the September 11, 2001, attacks on New York City's World Trade Center

Emine R. Ayvaci, David E. Pollio, Jeffrey Sonis, Saira M. Bhatti, Carol S North

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: This study used mixed methods to investigate satisfaction with justice and desire for revenge in a sample of employees from New York City agencies affected by the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center. Methods: A volunteer sample of 196 employees of eight affected agencies provided a short essay about what justice means to them in relation to the 9/11 attacks, followed by 20 quantitative questions covering personal experiences and perceptions of 9/11-related justice. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed for bivariate comparisons of quantitative items and qualitative thematic codes. Mixed methods analysis was used to inspect the associations of the content of all text coded for themes with quantitative categories within and across domains. Results: Only the revenge domain showed a significant association between the quantitative category and the qualitative theme. The quantitative revenge category was positively associated with the qualitative justice through safety theme. Examination of qualitative content provided insights into the relationships with quantitative constructs. Conclusion: Qualitative and mixed methods research on justice and revenge in mass casualty settings add new findings to the existing literature and have the potential to contribute to the interpretation and potential expansion of topic areas assessed by quantitative scales.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1772
JournalInternational Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Social Justice
Survivors
Nonparametric Statistics
Mass Casualty Incidents
Volunteers
Safety
Research

Keywords

  • 9/11 terrorist attacks
  • justice
  • mixed methods research
  • revenge
  • trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

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title = "A mixed methods study of satisfaction with justice and desire for revenge in survivors of the September 11, 2001, attacks on New York City's World Trade Center",
abstract = "Objective: This study used mixed methods to investigate satisfaction with justice and desire for revenge in a sample of employees from New York City agencies affected by the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center. Methods: A volunteer sample of 196 employees of eight affected agencies provided a short essay about what justice means to them in relation to the 9/11 attacks, followed by 20 quantitative questions covering personal experiences and perceptions of 9/11-related justice. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed for bivariate comparisons of quantitative items and qualitative thematic codes. Mixed methods analysis was used to inspect the associations of the content of all text coded for themes with quantitative categories within and across domains. Results: Only the revenge domain showed a significant association between the quantitative category and the qualitative theme. The quantitative revenge category was positively associated with the qualitative justice through safety theme. Examination of qualitative content provided insights into the relationships with quantitative constructs. Conclusion: Qualitative and mixed methods research on justice and revenge in mass casualty settings add new findings to the existing literature and have the potential to contribute to the interpretation and potential expansion of topic areas assessed by quantitative scales.",
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author = "Ayvaci, {Emine R.} and Pollio, {David E.} and Jeffrey Sonis and Bhatti, {Saira M.} and North, {Carol S}",
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AU - Sonis, Jeffrey

AU - Bhatti, Saira M.

AU - North, Carol S

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N2 - Objective: This study used mixed methods to investigate satisfaction with justice and desire for revenge in a sample of employees from New York City agencies affected by the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center. Methods: A volunteer sample of 196 employees of eight affected agencies provided a short essay about what justice means to them in relation to the 9/11 attacks, followed by 20 quantitative questions covering personal experiences and perceptions of 9/11-related justice. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed for bivariate comparisons of quantitative items and qualitative thematic codes. Mixed methods analysis was used to inspect the associations of the content of all text coded for themes with quantitative categories within and across domains. Results: Only the revenge domain showed a significant association between the quantitative category and the qualitative theme. The quantitative revenge category was positively associated with the qualitative justice through safety theme. Examination of qualitative content provided insights into the relationships with quantitative constructs. Conclusion: Qualitative and mixed methods research on justice and revenge in mass casualty settings add new findings to the existing literature and have the potential to contribute to the interpretation and potential expansion of topic areas assessed by quantitative scales.

AB - Objective: This study used mixed methods to investigate satisfaction with justice and desire for revenge in a sample of employees from New York City agencies affected by the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center. Methods: A volunteer sample of 196 employees of eight affected agencies provided a short essay about what justice means to them in relation to the 9/11 attacks, followed by 20 quantitative questions covering personal experiences and perceptions of 9/11-related justice. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed for bivariate comparisons of quantitative items and qualitative thematic codes. Mixed methods analysis was used to inspect the associations of the content of all text coded for themes with quantitative categories within and across domains. Results: Only the revenge domain showed a significant association between the quantitative category and the qualitative theme. The quantitative revenge category was positively associated with the qualitative justice through safety theme. Examination of qualitative content provided insights into the relationships with quantitative constructs. Conclusion: Qualitative and mixed methods research on justice and revenge in mass casualty settings add new findings to the existing literature and have the potential to contribute to the interpretation and potential expansion of topic areas assessed by quantitative scales.

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