Objectives: It is unclear whether postoperative salvage radiation therapy (SRT) and early adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) after radical prostatectomy lead to equivalent long-term tumor control. We studied a group of patients undergoing ART by comparing them with a matched control group undergoing SRT after biochemical failure. Methods: Using a multi-institutional database of 2299 patients, 449 patients with pT3-4N0 disease were eligible for inclusion, including 211 patients receiving ART and 238 patients receiving SRT. Patients were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to preoperative prostate-specific antigen Gleason score, seminal vesicle invasion, surgical margin status, and follow-up from date of surgery. Results: A total of 192 patients were matched (96:96). The median follow-up was 94 months from surgery and 73 months from RT completion. There was a significant reduction in biochemical failure with ART compared with SRT. The 5-year freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) from surgery was 75% after ART, compared with 66% for SRT (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6, P = .049). The 5-year FFBF from the end of RT was 73% after ART, compared with 50% after SRT (HR = 2.3, log rank [LR] P = .0007). From the end of RT, SRT and Gleason score ≥8 were independent predictors of diminished FFBF. From the date of surgery, Gleason score ≥8 was a significant predictor of FFBF. Conclusions: Early ART for pT3-4N0 prostate cancer significantly reduces the risk of long-term biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy compared with SRT. Gleason score ≥8 was the only factor on multivariate analysis associated with metastasic progression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas