A narrative review of Hyporeninemic hypertension-an indicator for monogenic forms of hypertension

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Abstract

Background and Objective: While the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in the development of hypertension is well known, the significance and contribution of low renin hypertension is often overlooked. RAAS stimulation results in more tubular absorption of sodium and water along the nephron, contributing to a higher circulating vascular volume. In addition, members of the RAAS system, such as angiotensin II, have direct effects on vascular vasoconstriction, the heart, aldosterone synthesis in the adrenal glands, the sympathetic nervous system, and the central nervous system. This has resulted in a line of antihypertensive therapeutics targeting RAAS with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and renin inhibitors, which prevent conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin. While general practitioners and nephrologists are well aware of the causes and the long-term consequences of elevated renin and aldosterone levels, the opposite situation with low renin and/or low aldosterone levels is frequently underappreciated. The objective of this review is to provide insight to the less common forms of hyporeninemic hypertension. Methods: We searched the PubMed online library for keywords related to hyporeninemic hypertension and focused on the pediatric population. For pathophysiology we focused on literature of the last 5 years. Key Content and Findings: The low renin and aldosterone levels may be indicators of inherited (especially when associated with hypokalemia), monogenic forms of hypertension stimulating excessive tubular sodium and water absorption which subsequently results in plasma volume expansion and hypertension. These forms of hypertension require frequently specific forms of therapy. This underlines the importance of the practitioner to be familiar with these rare diseases. Conclusions: In this review article, we outline the different forms of hypertension characterized by low renin/low aldosterone and low renin/high aldosterone levels, how to diagnose these forms of hypertension, and how to treat them.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number21
JournalPediatric Medicine
Volume5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • aldosterone
  • genetics
  • hypertension
  • Hyporeninemia
  • inheritance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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