Dynamin GTPases are best studied for their role in the terminal membrane fission process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME); but, they have also been proposed to regulate earlier stages of CME. Although highly enriched in neurons, dynamin-1 (Dyn1) is, in fact, widely expressed along with dynamin-2 (Dyn2), but inactivated in non-neuronal cells via phosphorylation by GSK3β kinase. Here, we study the differential, isoform-specific functions of Dyn1 and Dyn2 as regulators of CME. Endogenously expressed Dyn1 and Dyn2 were fluorescently-tagged either separately or together in two cell lines with contrasting Dyn1 expression levels. By quantitative live cell dual and triple-channel total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy we find that Dyn2 is more efficiently recruited to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) than Dyn1, and that Dyn2, but not Dyn1 exhibits a burst of assembly prior to CCV formation. Activation of Dyn1 by acute inhibition of GSK3β results in more rapid endocytosis of transferrin receptors, increased rates of CCP initiation and decreased CCP lifetimes, but did not significantly affect the extent of Dyn1 recruitment to CCPs. Thus, activated Dyn1 can regulate early stages of CME even when present at low, substoichiometric levels relative to Dyn2, and apparently without assembly into supramolecular collar-like structures. Under physiological conditions Dyn1 is activated downstream of EGF-receptor signaling to alter CCP dynamics. We identify sorting nexin 9 (SNX9) as a preferred binding partner to activated Dyn1 that is partially required for Dyn1-dependent effects on early stages of CCP maturation. Together, we decouple regulatory and scission functions of dynamins and report a scission-independent, isoformspecific regulatory role for Dyn1 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)