Background: Lamin A/C (LMNA) gene mutations cause a heterogeneous group of progeroid disorders, including Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, mandibuloacral dysplasia, and atypical progeroid syndrome (APS). Five of the 31 previously reported patients with APS harbored a recurrent de novo heterozygous LMNA p.T10I mutation. All five had generalized lipodystrophy, as well as similar metabolic and clinical features, suggesting a distinct progeroid syndrome. Methods: We report nine new patients and follow-up of two previously reported patients with the heterozygous LMNA p.T10I mutation and compare their clinical and metabolic features with other patients with APS. Results: Compared with other patients with APS, those with the heterozygous LMNA p.T10I mutation were younger in age but had increased prevalence of generalized lipodystrophy, diabetes mellitus, acanthosis nigricans, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatomegaly, together with higher fasting serum insulin and triglyceride levels and lower serum leptin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Prominent clinical features included mottled skin pigmentation, joint contractures, and cardiomyopathy resulting in cardiac transplants in three patients at ages 13, 33, and 47 years. Seven patients received metreleptin therapy for 0.5 to 16 years with all, except one noncompliant patient, showing marked improvement in metabolic complications. Conclusions: Patients with the heterozygous LMNA p.T10I mutation have distinct clinical features and significantly worse metabolic complications compared with other patients with APS as well as patients with Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome. We propose that they be recognized as having generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome. Patients with generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome should undergo careful multisystem assessment at onset and yearly metabolic and cardiac evaluation, as hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis, and cardiomyopathy are the major contributors to morbidity and mortality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical