Endothelin, a novel vasoactive peptide derived from endothelial cells (Yanagisawa, M., Kurihara, H., Kimura, S., Tomobe, Y., Kobayashi, M., Mitsui, Y., Yazaki, Y., Goto, K., and Masaki, T. (1988) Nature 332, 411-415), acts as a potent mitogen in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The effect is dose-dependent with a half-maximal effect obtained at approximately 3 x 10-11 M and is synergistically enhanced by a low concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I. Endothelin specifically binds to a single class of high affinity receptors in intact Swiss 3T3 cells and stimulates phospholipase C with the production of second messengers inositol trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol, leading to biphasic increases in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, as measured with a fluorescent indicator fura-2, phosphorylation of a putative cellular substrate of 80 kDa for protein kinase C, and transient expression of cellular protooncogenes, c-fos and c-myc. Mitogenic effect of endothelin is markedly attenuated in phorbol ester-pretreated, protein kinase C-depleted cells. Endothelin-induced inositol phosphates production is not affected by removal of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that endothelin-induced phospholipase C activation is not the result of stimulation of Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. These composite results indicate that the inositol lipid signaling pathway plays an important role in endothelin-induced mitogenesis in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The mitogenic effect of endothelin is considerably smaller than that of bombesin, another well characterized mitogen acting through the inositol lipid pathway, despite comparable potencies in eliciting initial second messenger signals. In endothelin-treated cells, an increase in cellular 1,2-diacylglycerol content is transient, and cellular cyclic AMP content is reduced. By contrast, bombesin induces a more prolonged increase in cellular 1,2-diacylglycerol content and a slight increase in cellular cyclic AMP content. Because both 1,2-diacylglycerol and cyclic AMP are thought to serve as signals for promoting DNA synthesis in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, these differences in the signal generation may contribute to the differences in potencies between the two mitogens.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1989|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology