A phase 3 trial of whole brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery alone versus WBRT and SRS with temozolomide or erlotinib for non-small cell lung cancer and 1 to 3 brain metastases: Radiation therapy oncology group 0320

Paul W. Sperduto, Meihua Wang, H. Ian Robins, Michael C. Schell, Maria Werner-Wasik, Ritsuko Komaki, Luis Souhami, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Deepak Khuntia, William Demas, Sunjay A. Shah, Lucien A. Nedzi, Gad Perry, John H. Suh, Minesh P. Mehta

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Abstract

Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m2/day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m2/day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1312-1318
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume85
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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    Sperduto, P. W., Wang, M., Robins, H. I., Schell, M. C., Werner-Wasik, M., Komaki, R., Souhami, L., Buyyounouski, M. K., Khuntia, D., Demas, W., Shah, S. A., Nedzi, L. A., Perry, G., Suh, J. H., & Mehta, M. P. (2013). A phase 3 trial of whole brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery alone versus WBRT and SRS with temozolomide or erlotinib for non-small cell lung cancer and 1 to 3 brain metastases: Radiation therapy oncology group 0320. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, 85(5), 1312-1318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.11.042