A phase Ib/II trial of granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2 for renal cell carcinoma patients with pulmonary metastases: A case of fatal central nervous system thrombosis

Kirsten M. Hotton, Masoud Khorsand, Jacquelyn A. Hank, Mark Albertini, Kyung Mann Kim, George Wilding, M. Shahriar Salamat, Marilyn Larson, Paul Sondel, Joan H. Schiller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are cytokines with nonoverlapping pleiotropic effects. In a prior Phase Ib study, this combination of agents exhibited antitumor effects in the lungs of four of eight patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases. We conducted this Phase Ib/II trial to determine the response rate of renal cell carcinoma patients with pulmonary metastases treated with continuous infusion IL-2 plus GM-CSF. METHODS. Patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases were treated with 1.5, 2.25, or 4.5 x 106 IU/m2/day 96-hour continuous infusion IL-2 on Days 1-4, 8-11, and 15-18, and 1.25, 2.25, or 2.5 μg/kg/day GM-CSF on Days 8-19. RESULTS. Sixteen patients were treated per protocol, 14 of whom could be evaluated for disease progression. None of these 14 patients had >50% shrinkage of either total tumor burden or pulmonary metastasis. One patient developed Grade 5 neurotoxicity. Autopsy revealed acute multifocal cerebral venous thrombosis as well as acute subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS. The combination of IL-2 and GM-CSF may be associated with marked morbidity and, as in one case in this study, mortality. No significant antitumor activity was appreciated. Thus, the combination of IL-2 and GM-CSF, when administered at this dose and according to this schedule, does not appear to be active in renal cell carcinoma and is associated with significant toxicities. Further studies using this combination of agents should only be undertaken with extreme caution and particular attention to neurotoxicity. (C) 2000 American Cancer Society.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1892-1901
Number of pages10
JournalCancer
Volume88
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2000

Keywords

  • Granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor
  • Interleukin-2
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Renal cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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