A practical approach to altitude training

Where to live and train for optimal performance enhancement

B. D. Levine, J. Stray-Gundersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

123 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Altitude training may improve performance by a number of mechanisms. Acclimatization may improve both oxygen delivery and extraction. Hypoxic exercise may increase the training stimulus thus magnifying the effects of endurance training. Conversely, high altitude decreases V̇O2max and reduces the workloads at which training occurs. At altitude, base training is performed at a slower velocity and lower oxygen uptake (lower absolute workload) compared to sea level, though heart rate is similar and lactate is higher (probably greater relative workload). Interval workouts are performed at a lower absolute workload at altitude and are associated with lower peak heart rates and blood lactate concentrations. Red cell volume is increased during altitude training, as long as iron stores are normal. We suggest that for performance at altitude, acclimatization and/or hypoxic exercise is preferable; for performance at sea level, living at altitude (acclimatization) with sea level training may be the optimal strategy. However neither approach is a substitute for a carefully designed training program including appropriate rest and nutrition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume13
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - 1992

Fingerprint

Workload
Acclimatization
Oceans and Seas
Lactic Acid
Heart Rate
Oxygen
Cell Size
Iron
Education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

A practical approach to altitude training : Where to live and train for optimal performance enhancement. / Levine, B. D.; Stray-Gundersen, J.

In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 13, No. SUPPL. 1, 1992.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8c4f3de37b3d48ada4492b63f0fa80d8,
title = "A practical approach to altitude training: Where to live and train for optimal performance enhancement",
abstract = "Altitude training may improve performance by a number of mechanisms. Acclimatization may improve both oxygen delivery and extraction. Hypoxic exercise may increase the training stimulus thus magnifying the effects of endurance training. Conversely, high altitude decreases V̇O2max and reduces the workloads at which training occurs. At altitude, base training is performed at a slower velocity and lower oxygen uptake (lower absolute workload) compared to sea level, though heart rate is similar and lactate is higher (probably greater relative workload). Interval workouts are performed at a lower absolute workload at altitude and are associated with lower peak heart rates and blood lactate concentrations. Red cell volume is increased during altitude training, as long as iron stores are normal. We suggest that for performance at altitude, acclimatization and/or hypoxic exercise is preferable; for performance at sea level, living at altitude (acclimatization) with sea level training may be the optimal strategy. However neither approach is a substitute for a carefully designed training program including appropriate rest and nutrition.",
author = "Levine, {B. D.} and J. Stray-Gundersen",
year = "1992",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
journal = "International Journal of Sports Medicine",
issn = "0172-4622",
publisher = "Georg Thieme Verlag",
number = "SUPPL. 1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A practical approach to altitude training

T2 - Where to live and train for optimal performance enhancement

AU - Levine, B. D.

AU - Stray-Gundersen, J.

PY - 1992

Y1 - 1992

N2 - Altitude training may improve performance by a number of mechanisms. Acclimatization may improve both oxygen delivery and extraction. Hypoxic exercise may increase the training stimulus thus magnifying the effects of endurance training. Conversely, high altitude decreases V̇O2max and reduces the workloads at which training occurs. At altitude, base training is performed at a slower velocity and lower oxygen uptake (lower absolute workload) compared to sea level, though heart rate is similar and lactate is higher (probably greater relative workload). Interval workouts are performed at a lower absolute workload at altitude and are associated with lower peak heart rates and blood lactate concentrations. Red cell volume is increased during altitude training, as long as iron stores are normal. We suggest that for performance at altitude, acclimatization and/or hypoxic exercise is preferable; for performance at sea level, living at altitude (acclimatization) with sea level training may be the optimal strategy. However neither approach is a substitute for a carefully designed training program including appropriate rest and nutrition.

AB - Altitude training may improve performance by a number of mechanisms. Acclimatization may improve both oxygen delivery and extraction. Hypoxic exercise may increase the training stimulus thus magnifying the effects of endurance training. Conversely, high altitude decreases V̇O2max and reduces the workloads at which training occurs. At altitude, base training is performed at a slower velocity and lower oxygen uptake (lower absolute workload) compared to sea level, though heart rate is similar and lactate is higher (probably greater relative workload). Interval workouts are performed at a lower absolute workload at altitude and are associated with lower peak heart rates and blood lactate concentrations. Red cell volume is increased during altitude training, as long as iron stores are normal. We suggest that for performance at altitude, acclimatization and/or hypoxic exercise is preferable; for performance at sea level, living at altitude (acclimatization) with sea level training may be the optimal strategy. However neither approach is a substitute for a carefully designed training program including appropriate rest and nutrition.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026478562&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026478562&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 13

JO - International Journal of Sports Medicine

JF - International Journal of Sports Medicine

SN - 0172-4622

IS - SUPPL. 1

ER -