Background and Aims: The management of suspected choledocholithiasis remains a challenge in pediatric endoscopy. Several recommendations are available for adult patients; however, it is unknown which pediatric patients are most likely to benefit from ERCP for evaluation of choledocholithiasis. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate adult-based criteria in the evaluation of pediatric patients with choledocholithiasis. A secondary aim was to evaluate the role of conjugated (or direct) bilirubin to improve the sensitivity of detecting choledocholithiasis. Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study in pediatric patients as part of the Pediatric ERCP Database Initiative (PEDI) with additional post-hoc analysis of updated guidelines. Patients <19 years of age undergoing ERCP for suspected choledocholithiasis or gallstone pancreatitis were enrolled at participating sites. Results: Ninety-five patients were enrolled (69 with choledocholithiasis confirmed at ERCP and 26 with no stones at ERCP). Adverse event rates were similar in both groups. Specificity ranged from 27% to 91% using adult guidelines, but a sensitivity of only 20% to 69%. The were no significant differences between the 2 groups using preprocedure transabdominal US (P = 1.0). Significant differences between groups were identified using either the total or conjugated bilirubin (P = .02). There was also a significant difference between the stone and no-stone groups when conjugated bilirubin was dichotomized to >2 mg/dL (P = .03). Conclusions: Abdominal imaging and laboratory indices may be used to predict pediatric choledocholithiasis with varying sensitivity and specificity. Pediatric-specific guidelines may allow for improved stone prediction compared with existing adult recommendations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging