A Quaternary SNARE-Synaptotagmin-Ca2+-Phospholipid Complex in Neurotransmitter Release

Han Dai, Nan Shen, Demet Araç, Jose Rizo-Rey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

89 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The function of synaptotagmin as a Ca2+ sensor in neurotransmitter release involves Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding to its two C2 domains, but this activity alone does not explain why Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is more critical for release than Ca2+ binding to the C2A domain. Synaptotagmin also binds to SNARE complexes, which are central components of the membrane fusion machinery, and displaces complexins from the SNAREs. However, it is unclear how phospholipid binding to synaptotagmin is coupled to SNARE binding and complexin displacement. Using supported lipid bilayers deposited within microfluidic channels, we now show that Ca2+ induces simultaneous binding of synaptotagmin to phospholipid membranes and SNARE complexes, resulting in an intimate quaternary complex that we name SSCAP complex. Mutagenesis experiments show that Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is critical for SSCAP complex formation and displacement of complexin, providing a clear rationale for the preponderant role of the C2B domain in release. This and other correlations between the effects of mutations on SSCAP complex formation and their functional effects in vivo suggest a key role for this complex in release. We propose a model whereby the highly positive electrostatic potential at the tip of the SSCAP complex helps to induce membrane fusion during release.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)848-863
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Molecular Biology
Volume367
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 30 2007

Fingerprint

Synaptotagmins
SNARE Proteins
Neurotransmitter Agents
Phospholipids
Membrane Fusion
Microfluidics
Lipid Bilayers
Static Electricity
Mutagenesis
Names
Mutation
Membranes

Keywords

  • Ca binding
  • neurotransmitter release
  • phospholipid binding
  • SNAREs
  • synaptotagmin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology

Cite this

A Quaternary SNARE-Synaptotagmin-Ca2+-Phospholipid Complex in Neurotransmitter Release. / Dai, Han; Shen, Nan; Araç, Demet; Rizo-Rey, Jose.

In: Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 367, No. 3, 30.03.2007, p. 848-863.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{70f246cd8727482badb1081137da361e,
title = "A Quaternary SNARE-Synaptotagmin-Ca2+-Phospholipid Complex in Neurotransmitter Release",
abstract = "The function of synaptotagmin as a Ca2+ sensor in neurotransmitter release involves Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding to its two C2 domains, but this activity alone does not explain why Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is more critical for release than Ca2+ binding to the C2A domain. Synaptotagmin also binds to SNARE complexes, which are central components of the membrane fusion machinery, and displaces complexins from the SNAREs. However, it is unclear how phospholipid binding to synaptotagmin is coupled to SNARE binding and complexin displacement. Using supported lipid bilayers deposited within microfluidic channels, we now show that Ca2+ induces simultaneous binding of synaptotagmin to phospholipid membranes and SNARE complexes, resulting in an intimate quaternary complex that we name SSCAP complex. Mutagenesis experiments show that Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is critical for SSCAP complex formation and displacement of complexin, providing a clear rationale for the preponderant role of the C2B domain in release. This and other correlations between the effects of mutations on SSCAP complex formation and their functional effects in vivo suggest a key role for this complex in release. We propose a model whereby the highly positive electrostatic potential at the tip of the SSCAP complex helps to induce membrane fusion during release.",
keywords = "Ca binding, neurotransmitter release, phospholipid binding, SNAREs, synaptotagmin",
author = "Han Dai and Nan Shen and Demet Ara{\cc} and Jose Rizo-Rey",
year = "2007",
month = "3",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1016/j.jmb.2007.01.040",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "367",
pages = "848--863",
journal = "Journal of Molecular Biology",
issn = "0022-2836",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A Quaternary SNARE-Synaptotagmin-Ca2+-Phospholipid Complex in Neurotransmitter Release

AU - Dai, Han

AU - Shen, Nan

AU - Araç, Demet

AU - Rizo-Rey, Jose

PY - 2007/3/30

Y1 - 2007/3/30

N2 - The function of synaptotagmin as a Ca2+ sensor in neurotransmitter release involves Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding to its two C2 domains, but this activity alone does not explain why Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is more critical for release than Ca2+ binding to the C2A domain. Synaptotagmin also binds to SNARE complexes, which are central components of the membrane fusion machinery, and displaces complexins from the SNAREs. However, it is unclear how phospholipid binding to synaptotagmin is coupled to SNARE binding and complexin displacement. Using supported lipid bilayers deposited within microfluidic channels, we now show that Ca2+ induces simultaneous binding of synaptotagmin to phospholipid membranes and SNARE complexes, resulting in an intimate quaternary complex that we name SSCAP complex. Mutagenesis experiments show that Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is critical for SSCAP complex formation and displacement of complexin, providing a clear rationale for the preponderant role of the C2B domain in release. This and other correlations between the effects of mutations on SSCAP complex formation and their functional effects in vivo suggest a key role for this complex in release. We propose a model whereby the highly positive electrostatic potential at the tip of the SSCAP complex helps to induce membrane fusion during release.

AB - The function of synaptotagmin as a Ca2+ sensor in neurotransmitter release involves Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding to its two C2 domains, but this activity alone does not explain why Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is more critical for release than Ca2+ binding to the C2A domain. Synaptotagmin also binds to SNARE complexes, which are central components of the membrane fusion machinery, and displaces complexins from the SNAREs. However, it is unclear how phospholipid binding to synaptotagmin is coupled to SNARE binding and complexin displacement. Using supported lipid bilayers deposited within microfluidic channels, we now show that Ca2+ induces simultaneous binding of synaptotagmin to phospholipid membranes and SNARE complexes, resulting in an intimate quaternary complex that we name SSCAP complex. Mutagenesis experiments show that Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is critical for SSCAP complex formation and displacement of complexin, providing a clear rationale for the preponderant role of the C2B domain in release. This and other correlations between the effects of mutations on SSCAP complex formation and their functional effects in vivo suggest a key role for this complex in release. We propose a model whereby the highly positive electrostatic potential at the tip of the SSCAP complex helps to induce membrane fusion during release.

KW - Ca binding

KW - neurotransmitter release

KW - phospholipid binding

KW - SNAREs

KW - synaptotagmin

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33847269603&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33847269603&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.01.040

DO - 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.01.040

M3 - Article

C2 - 17320903

AN - SCOPUS:33847269603

VL - 367

SP - 848

EP - 863

JO - Journal of Molecular Biology

JF - Journal of Molecular Biology

SN - 0022-2836

IS - 3

ER -