Purpose: Preclinical studies suggest that inhaled budesonide may be an effective chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. We conducted a phase IIb study to determine the effects of inhaled budesonide in smokers with bronchial dysplasia. Experimental Design: A total of 112 smokers with more than or equal to one site of bronchial dysplasia > 1.2 mm in size identified by autofluorescence bronchoscopy-directed biopsy was randomly assigned to receive placebo or budesonide (Pulmicort Turbuhaler) 800 μg twice daily inhalation for 6 months. The primary end point was change in the histopathologic grade on repeat biopsy of the same sites at the end of 6 months. Results: There were no significant differences in the regression or progression rates of bronchial dysplasia between the two groups. There was a statistically significant but modest decrease in p53 and BelII expression in the bronchial biopsies after 6 months of Pulmicort Turbuhaler versus placebo (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001, respectively). There was a small but statistically significant decrease in the proportion of computed tomography-detected lung nodules after Pulmicort Turbuhaler compared with placebo (P = 0.024). Conclusions: Our results suggest that in smokers, inhaled budesonide in the dose of 1600 μg daily for 6 months had no effect in regression of bronchial dysplastic lesions or prevention of new lesions. Budesonide treatment resulted in a modest decrease in p53 and BclII. protein expression in bronchial biopsies and a slightly higher rate of resolution of computed tomography-detected lung nodules. Whether budesonide truly has an effect in preneoplastic lesions in the peripheral airways and alveoli requires additional investigation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research