A selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonist promotes reverse cholesterol transport

William R. Oliver, Jennifer L. Shenk, Mike R. Snaith, Caroline S. Russell, Kelli D. Plunket, Noni L. Bodkin, Michael C. Lewis, Deborah A. Winegar, Marcos L. Sznaidman, Millard H. Lambert, H. Eric Xu, Daniel D. Sternbach, Steven A. Kliewer, Barbara C. Hansen, Timothy M. Willson

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Abstract

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are dietary lipid sensors that regulate fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The hypolipidemic effects of the fibrate drugs and the antidiabetic effects of the glitazone drugs in humans are due to activation of the α (NR1C1) and γ (NR1C3) subtypes, respectively. By contrast, the therapeutic potential of the δ (NR1C2) subtype is unknown, due in part to the lack of selective ligands. We have used combinatorial chemistry and structure-based drug design to develop a potent and subtype-selective PPARδ agonist, GW501516. In macrophages, fibroblasts, and intestinal cells, GW501516 increases expression of the reverse cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 and induces apolipoprotein Al-specific cholesterol efflux. When dosed to insulin-resistant middle-aged obese rhesus monkeys, GW501516 causes a dramatic dose-dependent rise in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol while lowering the levels of small-dense low density lipoprotein, fasting triglycerides, and fasting insulin. Out results suggest that PPARδ agonists may be effective drugs to increase reverse cholesterol transport and decrease cardiovascular disease associated with the metabolic syndrome X.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5306-5311
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume98
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 24 2001

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Oliver, W. R., Shenk, J. L., Snaith, M. R., Russell, C. S., Plunket, K. D., Bodkin, N. L., Lewis, M. C., Winegar, D. A., Sznaidman, M. L., Lambert, M. H., Xu, H. E., Sternbach, D. D., Kliewer, S. A., Hansen, B. C., & Willson, T. M. (2001). A selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonist promotes reverse cholesterol transport. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(9), 5306-5311. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.091021198