A stereotactic near-infrared probe for localization during functional neurosurgical procedures: Further experience - Clinical article

Cole A. Giller, Hanli Liu, Dwight C. German, Dheerendra Kashyap, Richard B. Dewey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Scopus citations


Object. The authors previously developed an optical stereotactic probe employing near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to provide intraoperative localization by distinguishing gray matter from white matter. In the current study they extend and further validate this technology. Methods. Near-infrared probes were inserted 203 times during 138 procedures for movement disorders. Detailed validation with postoperative imaging was obtained for 121 of these procedures and with microelectrode recording (MER) for 30 procedures. Probes were constructed to interrogate tissue perpendicular to the probe path and to incorporate hollow channels for microelectrodes, deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes, and other payloads. Results. The NIR data were highly correlated to imaging and MER recordings for thalamic targets. The NIR data were highly sensitive but less specific relative to imaging for subthalamic targets, confirming the ability to detect the subthalamic nucleus and to provide warnings of inaccurate localization. The difference between the NIR- and MER-detected midpoints of the subthalamic nucleus along the chosen tracks was 1.1 ± 1.2 mm (SD). Data obtained during insertion and withdrawal of the NIR probe suggested that DBS electrodes may push their targets ahead of their paths. There was one symptomatic morbidity. Detailed NIR data could be obtained from a 7-cm track in less than 10 minutes. Conclusions. The NIR probe is a straightforward, quick, and robust tool for intraoperative localization during functional neurosurgery. Potential future applications include localization of targets for epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, and incorporation of NIR guidance into probes designed to convey various payloads.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)263-273
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2009



  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Near-infrared spectroscopy
  • Stereotactic guidance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery

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