A user's guide to the Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE)

Richard M. Myers, John Stamatoyannopoulos, Michael Snyder, Ian Dunham, Ross C. Hardison, Bradley E. Bernstein, Thomas R. Gingeras, W. James Kent, Ewan Birney, Barbara Wold, Gregory E. Crawford, Charles B. Epstein, Noam Shoresh, Jason Ernst, Tarjei S. Mikkelsen, Pouya Kheradpour, Xiaolan Zhang, Li Wang, Robbyn Issner, Michael J. CoyneTimothy Durham, Manching Ku, Thanh Truong, Lucas D. Ward, Robert C. Altshuler, Michael F. Lin, Manolis Kellis, Carrie A. Davis, Philipp Kapranov, Alexander Dobin, Christopher Zaleski, Felix Schlesinger, Philippe Batut, Sudipto Chakrabortty, Sonali Jha, Wei Lin, Jorg Drenkow, Huaien Wang, Kim Bell, Ian Bell, Hui Gao, Erica Dumais, Jacqueline Dumais, Stylianos E. Antonarakis, Catherine Ucla, Christelle Borel, Roderic Guigo, Sarah Djebali, Julien Lagarde, Colin Kingswood, Paolo Ribeca, Micha Sammeth, Tyler Alioto, Angelika Merkel, Hagen Tilgner, Piero Carninci, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Timo Lassmann, Hazuki Takahashi, Rehab F. Abdelhamid, Gregory Hannon, Katalin Toth Fejes, Jonathan Preall, Assaf Gordon, Vihra Sotirova, Alexandre Reymond, Cedric Howald, Emilie Aït Yahya Graison, Jacqueline Chrast, Yijun Ruan, Xiaoan Ruan, Atif Shahab, Wan Ting Poh, Chia Lin Wei, Terrence S. Furey, Alan P. Boyle, Nathan C. Sheffield, Lingyun Song, Yoichiro Shibata, Teresa Vales, Deborah Winter, Zhancheng Zhang, Darin London, Tianyuan Wang, Damian Keefe, Vishwanath R. Iyer, Bum Kyu Lee, Ryan M. McDaniell, Zheng Liu, Anna Battenhouse, Akshay A. Bhinge, Jason D. Lieb, Linda L. Grasfeder, Kimberly A. Showers, Paul G. Giresi, Seul K.C. Kim, Christopher Shestak, Florencia Pauli, Timothy E. Reddy, Jason Gertz, E. Christopher Partridge, Preti Jain, Rebekka O. Sprouse, Anita Bansal, Barbara Pusey, Michael A. Muratet, Katherine E. Varley, Kevin M. Bowling, Kimberly M. Newberry, Amy S. Nesmith, Jason A. Dilocker, Stephanie L. Parker, Lindsay L. Waite, Krista Thibeault, Kevin Roberts, Devin M. Absher, Ali Mortazavi, Brian Williams, Georgi Marinov, Diane Trout, Brandon King, Kenneth McCue, Anthony Kirilusha, Gilberto DeSalvo, Katherine Aylor Fisher, Henry Amrhein, Shirley Pepke, Jost Vielmetter, Gavin Sherlock, Arend Sidow, Serafim Batzoglou, Rami Rauch, Anshul Kundaje, Max Libbrecht, Elliott H. Margulies, Stephen C.J. Parker, Laura Elnitski, Eric D. Green, Tim Hubbard, Jennifer Harrow, Stephen Searle, Felix Kokocinski, Browen Aken, Adam Frankish, Toby Hunt, Gloria Despacio-Reyes, Mike Kay, Gaurab Mukherjee, Alexandra Bignell, Gary Saunders, Veronika Boychenko, Michael Brent, M. J. van Baren, Randall H. Brown, Mark Gerstein, Ekta Khurana, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Hugo Lam, Philip Cayting, Rebecca Robilotto, Zhi Lu, Thomas Derrien, Andrea Tanzer, David G. Knowles, Marco Mariotti, David Haussler, Rachel Harte, Mark Diekhans, Mike Lin, Alfonso Valencia, Michael Tress, Stephen G. Landt, Debasish Raha, Minyi Shi, Ghia Euskirchen, Fabian Grubert, Maya Kasowski, Jin Lian, Phil Lacroute, Youhan Xu, Hannah Monahan, Dorrelyn Patacsil, Teri Slifer, Xinqiong Yang, Alexandra Charos, Brian Reed, Linfeng Wu, Raymond K. Auerbach, Lukas Habegger, Manoj Hariharan, Joel Rozowsky, Alexej Abyzov, Sherman M. Weissman, Kevin Struhl, Nathan Lamarre-Vincent, Marianne Lindahl-Allen, Benoit Miotto, Zarmik Moqtaderi, Joseph D. Fleming, Peter Newburger, Peggy J. Farnham, Seth Frietze, Henriette O'Geen, Xiaoqin Xu, Kim R. Blahnik, Alina R. Cao, Sushma Iyengar, Rajinder Kaul, Robert E. Thurman, Hao Wang, Patrick A. Navas, Richard Sandstrom, Peter J. Sabo, Molly Weaver, Theresa Canfield, Kristen Lee, Shane Neph, Vaughan Roach, Alex Reynolds, Audra Johnson, Eric Rynes, Erika Giste, Shinny Vong, Jun Neri, Tristan Frum, Eric D. Nguyen, Abigail K. Ebersol, Minerva E. Sanchez, Hadar H. Sheffer, Dimitra Lotakis, Eric Haugen, Richard Humbert, Tanya Kutyavin, Tony Shafer, William S. Noble, Job Dekker, Bryan R. Lajoie, Amartya Sanyal, Kate R. Rosenbloom, Timothy R. Dreszer, Brian J. Raney, Galt P. Barber, Laurence R. Meyer, Cricket A. Sloan, Venkat S. Malladi, Melissa S. Cline, Katrina Learned, Vanessa K. Swing, Ann S. Zweig, Brooke Rhead, Pauline A. Fujita, Krishna Roskin, Donna Karolchik, Robert M. Kuhn, Steven P. Wilder, Daniel Sobral, Javier Herrero, Kathryn Beal, Margus Lukk, Alvis Brazma, Juan M. Vaquerizas, Nicholas M. Luscombe, Peter J. Bickel, Nathan Boley, James B. Brown, Qunhua Li, Haiyan Huang, Andrea Sboner, Kevin Y. Yip, Chao Cheng, Koon Kiu Yan, Nitin Bhardwaj, Jing Wang, Lucas Lochovsky, Justin Jee, Theodore Gibson, Jing Leng, Jiang Du, Robert S. Harris, Giltae Song, Webb Miller, Bernard Suh, Benedict Paten, Michael M. Hoffman, Orion J. Buske, Zhiping Weng, Xianjun Dong, Jie Wang, Hualin Xi, Scott A. Tenenbaum, Frank Doyle, Sridar Chittur, Luiz O. Penalva, Thomas D. Tullius, Kevin P. White, Subhradip Karmakar, Alec Victorsen, Nader Jameel, Nick Bild, Robert L. Grossman, Patrick J. Collins, Nathan D. Trinklein, Morgan C. Giddings, Jainab Khatun, Chris Maier, Ting Wang, Troy W. Whitfield, Xian Chen, Yanbao Yu, Harsha Gunawardena, Elise A. Feingold, Rebecca F. Lowdon, Laura A.L. Dillon, Peter J. Good, Brian Risk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

958 Scopus citations

Abstract

The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific and medical communities to interpret the human genome sequence and apply it to understand human biology and improve health. The ENCODE Consortium is integrating multiple technologies and approaches in a collective effort to discover and define the functional elements encoded in the human genome, including genes, transcripts, and transcriptional regulatory regions, together with their attendant chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. In the process, standards to ensure high-quality data have been implemented, and novel algorithms have been developed to facilitate analysis. Data and derived results are made available through a freely accessible database. Here we provide an overview of the project and the resources it is generating and illustrate the application of ENCODE data to interpret the human genome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1001046
JournalPLoS biology
Volume9
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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    Myers, R. M., Stamatoyannopoulos, J., Snyder, M., Dunham, I., Hardison, R. C., Bernstein, B. E., Gingeras, T. R., Kent, W. J., Birney, E., Wold, B., Crawford, G. E., Epstein, C. B., Shoresh, N., Ernst, J., Mikkelsen, T. S., Kheradpour, P., Zhang, X., Wang, L., Issner, R., ... Risk, B. (2011). A user's guide to the Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE). PLoS biology, 9(4), [e1001046]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001046