The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes gastroenteritis in humans and encodes the type III effector protein VPA0450, which contributes to host cell death caused by autophagy, cell rounding, and cell lysis. We found that VPA0450 is an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase that hydrolyzed the D5 phosphate from the plasma membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. VPA0450 disrupted cytoskeletal binding sites on the inner surface of membranes of human cells and caused plasma membrane blebbing, which compromised membrane integrity and probably contributed to cell death by facilitating lysis. Thus, bacterial pathogens can disrupt adaptor protein-binding sites required for proper membrane and cytoskeleton dynamics by altering the homeostasis of membrane-bound inositol-signaling molecules.
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