Absence of the sulfate transporter SAT-1 has no impact on oxalate handling by mouse intestine and does not cause hyperoxaluria or hyperoxalemia

Jonathan M. Whittamore, Christine E. Stephens, Marguerite Hatch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The anion exchanger SAT-1 [sulfate anion transporter 1 (Slc26a1)] is considered an important regulator of oxalate and sulfate homeostasis, but the mechanistic basis of these critical roles remain undetermined. Previously, characterization of the SAT-1-knockout (KO) mouse suggested that the loss of SAT-1-mediated oxalate secretion by the intestine was responsible for the hyperoxaluria, hyperoxalemia, and calcium oxalate urolithiasis reportedly displayed by this model. To test this hypothesis, we compared the transepithelial fluxes of 14 C-oxalate, 35 SO 2- 4 , and 36 Cl - across isolated, short-circuited segments of the distal ileum, cecum, and distal colon from wild-type (WT) and SAT-1-KO mice. The absence of SAT-1 did not impact the transport of these anions by any part of the intestine examined. Additionally, SAT-1-KO mice were neither hyperoxaluric nor hyperoxalemic. Instead, 24-h urinary oxalate excretion was almost 50% lower than in WT mice. With no contribution from the intestine, we suggest that this may reflect the loss of SAT-1-mediated oxalate efflux from the liver. SAT-1-KO mice were, however, profoundly hyposulfatemic, even though there were no changes to intestinal sulfate handling, and the renal clearances of sulfate and creatinine indicated diminished rates of sulfate reabsorption by the proximal tubule. Aside from this distinct sulfate phenotype, we were unable to reproduce the hyperoxaluria, hyperoxalemia, and urolithiasis of the original SAT-1-KO model. In conclusion, oxalate and sulfate transport by the intestine were not dependent on SAT-1, and we found no evidence supporting the long-standing hypothesis that intestinal SAT-1 contributes to oxalate and sulfate homeostasis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY SAT-1 is a membrane-bound transport protein expressed in the intestine, liver, and kidney, where it is widely considered essential for the excretion of oxalate, a potentially toxic waste metabolite. Previously, calcium oxalate kidney stone formation by the SAT-1-knockout mouse generated the hypothesis that SAT-1 has a major role in oxalate excretion via the intestine. We definitively tested this proposal and found no evidence for SAT-1 as an intestinal anion transporter contributing to oxalate homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)G82-G94
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Calcium oxalate urolithiasis
  • Chloride
  • Mouse
  • Slc26 gene family
  • Ussing chamber

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Physiology (medical)


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