Hypertrophy allows the heart to adapt to workload but culminates in later pump failure; how it is achieved remains uncertain. Previously, we showed that hypertrophy is accompanied by activation of cyclin T/Cdk9, which phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II, stimulating transcription elongation and pre-mRNA processing; Cdk9 activity was required for hypertrophy in culture, whereas heart-specific activation of Cdk9 by cyclin T1 provoked hypertrophy in mice. Here, we report that αMHC-cyclin T1 mice appear normal at baseline yet suffer fulminant apoptotic cardiomyopathy when challenged by mechanical stress or signaling by the G-protein Gq. At pathophysiological levels, Cdk9 activity suppresses many genes for mitochondrial proteins including master regulators of mitochondrial function (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1), nuclear respiratory factor-1). In culture, cyclin T1/Cdk9 suppresses PGC-1, decreases mitochondrial membrane potential, and sensitizes cardiomyocytes to apoptosis, effects rescued by exogenous PGC-1. Cyclin T1/Cdk9 inhibits PGC-1 promoter activity and preinitiation complex assembly. Thus, chronic activation of Cdk9 causes not only cardiomyocyte enlargement but also defective mitochondrial function, via diminished PGC-1 transcription, and a resulting susceptibility to apoptotic cardiomyopathy.
- Cyclin T
- Cyclin-dependent kinase-9
- Heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)