We report use of a novel hyperspectral imaging system utilizing digital light processing (DLP) technology to noninvasively visualize in vivo tissue oxygenation during surgical procedures. The system's novelty resides in its method of illuminating tissue with precisely predetermined continuous complex spectra. The Texas Instruments digital micromirror device, DMD, chip consisting of 768 by 1024 mirrors, each 16 μm square, can be switched between two positions at 12.5 kHz. Switching the appropriate mirrors controls the intensity of light illuminating the tissue as a function of wavelength, active spectral illumination. Meaning, the tissue can be illuminated with a different spectrum of light within 80 μs. Precisely, predetermined spectral illumination penetrates into patient tissue, its chemical composition augments the spectral properties of the light, and its reflected spectra are detected and digitized at each pixel detector of a silicon charge-coupled device, CCD. Using complex spectral illumination, digital signal processing and chemometric methods produce chemically relevant images at near video rates. Specific to this work, tissue is illuminated spectrally with light spanning the visible electromagnetic spectrum (380 to 780 nm). Spectrophotometric images are detected and processed visualizing the percentage of oxyhemoglobin at each pixel detector and presented continuously, in real time, at 3 images per second. As a proof of principle application, kidneys of four live anesthetized pigs were imaged before, during, and after renal vascular occlusion. DLP Hyperspectral Imaging with active spectral illumination detected a 64.73 ± 1.5% drop in the oxygenation of hemoglobin within 30 s of renal arterial occlusion. Producing chemically encoded images at near video rate, time-resolved hyperspectral imaging facilitates monitoring renal blood flow during animal surgery and holds considerable promise for doing the same during human surgical interventions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry