Acute kidney injury among black patients with sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease

Kabir O. Olaniran, Andrew S. Allegretti, Sophia H. Zhao, Sagar U. Nigwekar, Sahir Kalim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and objectives Sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease are associated with faster GFR decline compared with normal hemoglobin phenotypes. We sought to compare the AKI risk in sickle cell trait/disease to normal hemoglobin phenotypes and investigate the association between AKI and GFR decline in sickle cell trait/disease. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This multicenter observational study used registry data (January 2005–June 2018) of adult Black patients with sickle cell trait/disease (exposures) and normal hemoglobin phenotype (reference) ascertained by hemoglobin electrophoresis. Outcomes of interest (incident AKI [1.5 times baseline serum creatinine or higher], incident severe AKI [doubling of baseline serum creatinine or higher], and incident sustained AKI [AKI persisting for ≥72 hours]) were adjudicated by chart review and evaluated by Cox regression. The association between AKI and GFR decline (linear mixed models) was also investigated. Results We identified 8968 reference patients, 1279 patients with sickle cell trait, and 254 patients with sickle cell disease with a median follow-up of 7.6 years and mean baseline serum creatinine of 0.8 mg/dl. We observed 796 AKI events, 452 sustained AKI events, and 466 severe AKI events. Compared with people with a normal hemoglobin phenotype, sickle cell trait was associated with higher risk for sustained AKI (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.27 to 2.11), but not AKI (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.36) or severe AKI (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.64). Sickle cell disease was associated with AKI (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.85; 95% confidence interval, 2.13 to 3.81), severe AKI (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.65 to 3.42), and sustained AKI (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.68 to 3.71). Post-AKI GFR decline was significantly faster in sickle cell trait (0.37 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year faster, P<0.01) and disease (1.69 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year faster, P<0.01) compared with the reference. Conclusions Sickle cell trait and disease are associated with higher risk of AKI, which is associated with accelerated decline in eGFR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)348-355
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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