Immune stimulation fuels cell signaling-transcriptional programs inducing biological responses to eliminate virus-infected cells. Yet, retroviruses that integrate into host cell chromatin, such as HIV-1, co-opt these programs to switch between latent and reactivated states; however, the regulatory mechanisms are still unfolding. Here, we implemented a functional screen leveraging HIV-1’s dependence on CD4+ T cell signaling-transcriptional programs and discovered ADAP1 is an undescribed modulator of HIV-1 proviral fate. Specifically, we report ADAP1 (ArfGAP with dual PH domain-containing protein 1), a previously thought neuronal-restricted factor, is an amplifier of select T cell signaling programs. Using complementary biochemical and cellular assays, we demonstrate ADAP1 inducibly interacts with the immune signalosome to directly stimulate KRAS GTPase activity thereby augmenting T cell signaling through targeted activation of the ERK–AP-1 axis. Single cell transcriptomics analysis revealed loss of ADAP1 function blunts gene programs upon T cell stimulation consequently dampening latent HIV-1 reactivation. Our combined experimental approach defines ADAP1 as an unexpected tuner of T cell programs facilitating HIV-1 latency escape.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)