Adaptation of an enzyme to regulatory function

Structure of Bacillus subtilis PyrR, a pyr RNA-binding attenuation protein and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase

Diana R. Tomchick, Robert J. Turner, Robert L. Switzer, Janet L. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

58 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The expression of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic (pyr) genes in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by transcriptional attenuation. The PyrR attenuation protein binds to specific sites in pyr mRNA, allowing the formation of downstream terminator structures. UMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a nucleotide metabolite, are co-regulators with PyrR. The smallest RNA shown to bind tightly to PyrR is a 28-30 nucleotide stemloop that contains a purine-rich bulge and a putative-GNRA tetraloop. PyrR is also a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase), although the relationship between enzymatic activity and RNA recognition is unclear, and the UPRTase activity of PyrR is not physiologically significant in B. subtilis. Elucidating the role of PyrR structural motifs in UMP-dependent RNA binding is an important step towards understanding the mechanism of pyr transcriptional attenuation. Results: The 1.6 Å crystal structure of B. subtilis PyrR has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction, using a Sm co-crystal. As expected, the structure of PyrR is homologous to those proteins of the large type I PRTase structural family; it is most similar to hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine PRTase (HGXPRTase). The PyrR dimer differs from other PRTase dimers, suggesting it may have evolved specifically for RNA binding. A large, basic, surface at the dimer interface is an obvious RNA-binding site and uracil specificity is probably provided by hydrogen bonds from mainchain and sidechain atoms in the hood subdomain. These models of RNA and UMP binding are consistent with biological data. Conclusions: The B. subtilis protein PyrR has adapted the substrate- and product-binding capacities of a PRTase, probably an HGXPRTase, producing a new regulatory function in which the substrate and product are co-regulators of transcription termination. The structure is consistent with the idea that PyrR regulatory function is independent of catalytic activity, which is likely to be extremely low under physiological conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)337-350
Number of pages14
JournalStructure
Volume6
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 15 1998

Fingerprint

uracil phosphoribosyltransferase
RNA-Binding Proteins
Bacillus subtilis
RNA
Uridine Monophosphate
Enzymes
Hypoxanthine
Xanthine
Guanine
Nucleotides
Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate
Pyrimidine Nucleotides
Proteins
Uracil
Hydrogen
Binding Sites

Keywords

  • Attenuation
  • Biosynthesis
  • Phosphoribosyltransferase
  • Pyrimidine
  • Transcription

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Structural Biology

Cite this

Adaptation of an enzyme to regulatory function : Structure of Bacillus subtilis PyrR, a pyr RNA-binding attenuation protein and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. / Tomchick, Diana R.; Turner, Robert J.; Switzer, Robert L.; Smith, Janet L.

In: Structure, Vol. 6, No. 3, 15.03.1998, p. 337-350.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: The expression of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic (pyr) genes in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by transcriptional attenuation. The PyrR attenuation protein binds to specific sites in pyr mRNA, allowing the formation of downstream terminator structures. UMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a nucleotide metabolite, are co-regulators with PyrR. The smallest RNA shown to bind tightly to PyrR is a 28-30 nucleotide stemloop that contains a purine-rich bulge and a putative-GNRA tetraloop. PyrR is also a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase), although the relationship between enzymatic activity and RNA recognition is unclear, and the UPRTase activity of PyrR is not physiologically significant in B. subtilis. Elucidating the role of PyrR structural motifs in UMP-dependent RNA binding is an important step towards understanding the mechanism of pyr transcriptional attenuation. Results: The 1.6 {\AA} crystal structure of B. subtilis PyrR has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction, using a Sm co-crystal. As expected, the structure of PyrR is homologous to those proteins of the large type I PRTase structural family; it is most similar to hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine PRTase (HGXPRTase). The PyrR dimer differs from other PRTase dimers, suggesting it may have evolved specifically for RNA binding. A large, basic, surface at the dimer interface is an obvious RNA-binding site and uracil specificity is probably provided by hydrogen bonds from mainchain and sidechain atoms in the hood subdomain. These models of RNA and UMP binding are consistent with biological data. Conclusions: The B. subtilis protein PyrR has adapted the substrate- and product-binding capacities of a PRTase, probably an HGXPRTase, producing a new regulatory function in which the substrate and product are co-regulators of transcription termination. The structure is consistent with the idea that PyrR regulatory function is independent of catalytic activity, which is likely to be extremely low under physiological conditions.",
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T2 - Structure of Bacillus subtilis PyrR, a pyr RNA-binding attenuation protein and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase

AU - Tomchick, Diana R.

AU - Turner, Robert J.

AU - Switzer, Robert L.

AU - Smith, Janet L.

PY - 1998/3/15

Y1 - 1998/3/15

N2 - Background: The expression of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic (pyr) genes in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by transcriptional attenuation. The PyrR attenuation protein binds to specific sites in pyr mRNA, allowing the formation of downstream terminator structures. UMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a nucleotide metabolite, are co-regulators with PyrR. The smallest RNA shown to bind tightly to PyrR is a 28-30 nucleotide stemloop that contains a purine-rich bulge and a putative-GNRA tetraloop. PyrR is also a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase), although the relationship between enzymatic activity and RNA recognition is unclear, and the UPRTase activity of PyrR is not physiologically significant in B. subtilis. Elucidating the role of PyrR structural motifs in UMP-dependent RNA binding is an important step towards understanding the mechanism of pyr transcriptional attenuation. Results: The 1.6 Å crystal structure of B. subtilis PyrR has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction, using a Sm co-crystal. As expected, the structure of PyrR is homologous to those proteins of the large type I PRTase structural family; it is most similar to hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine PRTase (HGXPRTase). The PyrR dimer differs from other PRTase dimers, suggesting it may have evolved specifically for RNA binding. A large, basic, surface at the dimer interface is an obvious RNA-binding site and uracil specificity is probably provided by hydrogen bonds from mainchain and sidechain atoms in the hood subdomain. These models of RNA and UMP binding are consistent with biological data. Conclusions: The B. subtilis protein PyrR has adapted the substrate- and product-binding capacities of a PRTase, probably an HGXPRTase, producing a new regulatory function in which the substrate and product are co-regulators of transcription termination. The structure is consistent with the idea that PyrR regulatory function is independent of catalytic activity, which is likely to be extremely low under physiological conditions.

AB - Background: The expression of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic (pyr) genes in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by transcriptional attenuation. The PyrR attenuation protein binds to specific sites in pyr mRNA, allowing the formation of downstream terminator structures. UMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a nucleotide metabolite, are co-regulators with PyrR. The smallest RNA shown to bind tightly to PyrR is a 28-30 nucleotide stemloop that contains a purine-rich bulge and a putative-GNRA tetraloop. PyrR is also a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase), although the relationship between enzymatic activity and RNA recognition is unclear, and the UPRTase activity of PyrR is not physiologically significant in B. subtilis. Elucidating the role of PyrR structural motifs in UMP-dependent RNA binding is an important step towards understanding the mechanism of pyr transcriptional attenuation. Results: The 1.6 Å crystal structure of B. subtilis PyrR has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction, using a Sm co-crystal. As expected, the structure of PyrR is homologous to those proteins of the large type I PRTase structural family; it is most similar to hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine PRTase (HGXPRTase). The PyrR dimer differs from other PRTase dimers, suggesting it may have evolved specifically for RNA binding. A large, basic, surface at the dimer interface is an obvious RNA-binding site and uracil specificity is probably provided by hydrogen bonds from mainchain and sidechain atoms in the hood subdomain. These models of RNA and UMP binding are consistent with biological data. Conclusions: The B. subtilis protein PyrR has adapted the substrate- and product-binding capacities of a PRTase, probably an HGXPRTase, producing a new regulatory function in which the substrate and product are co-regulators of transcription termination. The structure is consistent with the idea that PyrR regulatory function is independent of catalytic activity, which is likely to be extremely low under physiological conditions.

KW - Attenuation

KW - Biosynthesis

KW - Phosphoribosyltransferase

KW - Pyrimidine

KW - Transcription

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