The activation of the complement system by living Strongyloides stercoralis filariform larvae and their antigenic preparation was demonstrated in vitro through both classical and alternative pathways. This activation does not require the presence of specific antibodies but promotes the adhesion of peripheral blood monocytes (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNC) to the larval surface. Larvae, totally coated by PMNC, showed a visible loss of motility after 2 hr incubation. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, in contrast to ethylene glycol-bis β-aminoethylether N,N,N,N- tetraacetic acid, abolished the adherence activity, suggesting the involvement of the alternative pathway in this process. Deposition of complement components C1q, C3, C4, C8, and properdin on the larval surface was demonstrated by immunofluorescence assays. In addition, complement activation by the larvae was demonstrated through C3 conversion and C4 cleavage assays, both depending on the number of larvae. On the other hand, complement activation by S. stercoralis antigen was determined by factor B and C4 cleavage, as well as C3 conversion assays. Our results suggest that the complement system as a first line of defense, in association with the effector cells, plays an important role in the nonspecific immune response of the host to S. stercoralis infection, especially considering the constant parasite recycling through the host tissues.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics