Background: Two recent South Korean studies showed adjuvant therapy (AT) was not associated with improved survival in pT1N1 gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). We established the prognostic utility of lymph node status, determined the pattern of use of AT, and compared survival stratified by type of AT in pT1N1 GAC in a Western patient population. Methods: We identified patients with pT1N0 and pT1N1 GAC using the National Cancer Database from 2004 to 2012. Clinicopathologic variables, treatment regimens, and overall survival (OS) were compared. Results: We compared 4516 (86.6%) pT1N0 to 696 (13.4%) pT1N1 patients. pT1N1 tumors were larger (median size 2.5 vs. 1.8 cm, p < 0.001), more often poorly differentiated (56.2% vs. 39.6%, p < 0.001), and had higher median retrieved lymph nodes (RLN) (14 vs. 12, p < 0.001) compared with pT1N0. pT1N1 was associated with worse median overall survival (OS) (6.9 vs. 9.9 years for pT1N0, p < 0.001). pN1 was independently associated with worse OS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84–2.56). Increased RLN was associated with improved OS (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.65–0.83). Among pT1N1 patients, 330 (47.4%) had observation (OBS), 77 (11.1%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT), 68 (9.8%) received adjuvant radiation therapy (ART), and 221 (31.8%) received adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (ACRT). ACT and ACRT were independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22–0.65 and HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28–0.57). Conclusions: pN1 was associated with worse survival and RLN ≥ 15 was associated with improved survival in pT1 GAC. ACT and ACRT were independently associated with improved survival in pT1N1 gastric cancer suggesting a valuable role in Western patients.
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