Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare endocrine tumor for which complete surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment. Accurate preoperative evaluation (biochemical and radiographic) of the patient who presents with an adrenal mass maximizes the opportunity for the patient to undergo a complete, margin-negative resection of the primary tumor, which is the most powerful prognostic variable for long-term survival. The response to chemotherapy or mitotane is modest in patients with advanced disease. Hopefully, an improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this challenging tumor will lead to the development of more effective therapies in the future.
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