Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) occurs in >10% of the adult population in Europe and the USA and can be differentiated into CRS without nasal polyps and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Both phenotypes are characterized by a high disease burden and an overlapping spectrum of symptoms, with facial pain and loss of smell being the most differentiating. Great progress has been made in the understanding of CRS pathophysiology: from the epithelium and epithelial–mesenchymal transition to innate and adaptive immunity pathways and, finally, on the role of eosinophils and Staphylococcus aureus in the persistence of disease. Although clinical manifestations and diagnostic tools (including nasal endoscopy and imaging) have undergone major changes over the past few years, management (including pharmacotherapy, surgery and biologics) has experienced enormous progress based on the growing knowledge of key mediators in severe CRSwNP. The introduction of endotyping has led to a differentiation of ‘tailored’ surgical approaches, focusing on the mucosal concept in those with severe CRSwNP and on the identification of patients eligible for extended surgery and possibly biologics in the future.
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