Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have become an important therapeutic modality for patients who have had a cardiac arrest or are at risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Clinical trials have confirmed the role of the ICD for patients with sustained ventricular arrhythmias and have expanded the indications to include patients with coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and inducible ventricular tachycardia. Numerous technologic advances in ICDs have resulted in decreased size, greater ease of placement, and increased functionality. Important advancements have been made in the effectiveness of arrhythmia classification and electrogram storage. Dual-chamber ICDs have become increasingly sophisticated with rate-adaptive sensors. Biventricular pacing is being combined with ICD function in patients with heart failure, systolic dysfunction, and QRS widening. Future advances in devices will likely lead to improved arrhythmia classification, more advanced automated features, and additional features including more sophisticated sensors and biventricular pacing systems.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine