While the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is widely accepted, its usage and content are not standardized. Implementation is affected by cost, access, level of participation, participant age/sex, and local/regional/national mandate. Preparticipation physical evaluation screening costs are generally borne by the athlete, family, or club. Screening involves generally agreed-upon questions based on expert opinion and tested over decades of use. No large-scale prospective controlled tracking programs have examined PPE outcomes. While the panel did not reach consensus on electrocardiogram (ECG) screening as a routine part of PPE, all agreed that a history and physical exam focusing on cardiac risk is essential, and an ECG should be used where risk is increased. The many areas of consensus should help the American College of Sports Medicine and Fédération Internationale du Médicine du Sport in developing a universally accepted PPE. An electronic PPE, using human-centered design, would be comprehensive, would provide a database given that PPE is mandatory in many locations, would simplify PPE administration, would allow remote access to clinical data, and would provide the much-needed data for prospective studies in this area.
- Electronic PPE
- PPE costs
- PPE research
- Screening strategies
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation