Purpose: Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is the drug of choice for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. In children with malignancy, TMP/SMX is well tolerated, but adverse reactions that necessitate discontinuation can occur. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of aerosolized pentamidine (AP) as an alternative prophylaxis modality in children with malignancy who are intolerant of or allergic to TMP/SMX. Patients and Methods: AP (200 mg/m2 every 4 weeks) was administered to 60 children with malignancy receiving chemotherapy who had experienced severe adverse reactions to TMP/SMX. Seven hundred twenty doses of AP have been administered during a 3 1/2 -year period (21,600 patient-days), with 30 patients treated for ≥ 12 months (range, 12 to 25). Results: Adverse reactions occurred during 79 (10%) of the 720 treatments and included bronchospasm in 23, cough in 40, vomiting in 10, and nausea in six. Only two patients had severe bronchospasm. AP was discontinued due to toxicity in three patients (5%). None of the patients (upper 95% confidence limit, 0.049) have developed PCP. Conclusion: AP appears to be well tolerated and effective in the prevention of PCP in children with malignancy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research