Alterations in dietary sodium intake affect cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity

Matthew C. Babcock, Michael S. Brian, Joseph C. Watso, David G. Edwards, Sean D. Stocker, Megan M. Wenner, William B. Farquhar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

High dietary sodium intake has been linked to alterations in neurally mediated cardiovascular function, but the effects of high sodium on cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) in healthy adults are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high dietary sodium alters cBRS and heart rate variability (HRV) and whether acute intravenous sodium loading similarly alters cBRS and HRV. High dietary sodium (300 mmol/day, 7 days) was compared with low dietary sodium (20 mmol/day, 7 days; randomized) in 14 participants (38 ± 4 yr old, 23 ± 1 kg/m2 body mass index, 7 women). Acute sodium loading was achieved via a 23-min intravenous hypertonic saline infusion (HSI) in 14 participants (22 ± 1 yr old, 23 ± 1 kg/m2 body mass index, 7 women). During both protocols, participants were supine for 5 min during measurement of beat-to-beat blood pressure (photoplethysmography) and R-R interval (ECG). cBRS was evaluated using the sequence method. Root mean square of successive differences in R-R interval (RMSSD) was used as an index of HRV. Serum sodium (137.4 ± 0.7 vs. 139.9 ± 0.5 meq/l, P < 0.05), plasma osmolality (285 ± 1 vs. 289 ± 1 mosmol/kgH2O, P < 0.05), cBRS (18 ± 2 vs. 26 ± 3 ms/mmHg, P < 0.05), and RMSSD (62 ± 6 vs. 79 ± 10 ms, P < 0.05) were increased following high-sodium diet intake compared with low-sodium diet intake. HSI increased serum sodium (138.1 ± 0.4 vs. 141.1 ± 0.5 meq/l, P < 0.05) and plasma osmolality (286 ± 1 vs. 290 ± 1 mosmol/kgH2O, P < 0.05) but did not change cBRS (26 ± 5 vs. 25 ± 3 ms/mmHg, P = 0.73) and RMSSD (63 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 8 ms, P = 0.99). These data suggest that alterations in dietary sodium intake alter cBRS and HRV but that acute intravenous sodium loading does not alter these indexes of autonomic cardiovascular regulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)R688-R695
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume315
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Baroreflex sensitivity
  • Cardiovagal
  • Heart rate variability
  • High-salt diet
  • Hypertonic saline
  • Plasma osmolality
  • Sequence method
  • Serum sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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