The interconversion of active and inactive corticosteroids – cortisol and cortisone, respectively, in humans – is modulated by isozymes of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11-HSD). Studies of this process have provided crucial insights into glucocorticoid effects in a wide variety of tissues. The 11-HSD1 isozyme functions mainly as an oxoreductase (cortisone to cortisol) and is expressed at high levels in the liver and other glucocorticoid target tissues. Because it is required for full physiological effects of cortisol, it has emerged as a drug target for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Mutations in the corresponding HSD11B1 gene, or in the H6PD gene encoding hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (which supplies the NADPH required for the oxoreductase activity of 11-HSD1), cause apparent cortisone reductase deficiency, a rare syndrome of adrenocortical hyperactivity and hyperandrogenism. In contrast, the 11-HSD2 isozyme functions as a dehydrogenase (cortisol to cortisone) and is expressed mainly in mineralocorticoid target tissues, where it bars access of cortisol to the mineralocorticoid receptor. Mutations in the HSD11B2 gene encoding 11-HSD2 cause the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess, a severe form of familial hypertension. The role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of common forms of low-renin hypertension remains uncertain.
- 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
- Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
- Type 2 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism