Alternative cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices

Robert E. O'Connor, Joseph P. Ornato, Jane Wigginton, Richard C. Hunt, Gregory Mears, Joe Penner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) involving manual external chest compression combined with artificial respiration was first described in 1960 by Kouwenhoven et al. (Kouwenhoven W, Jude JR, Knickerbocker GG. Closedchest cardiac massage. JAMA. 1960; 173:1064-7). In the four decades since then, there have been no widely accepted alternatives for this technique. Even with the subsequent worldwide adoption of CPR and other advanced cardiac life support measures, long-term survival after prehospital cardiac arrest is still typically only 5% to 10%. The performance of CPR must therefore be improved to increase the rate of long-term survival. Currently under development are new, alternative techniques such as interposed abdominal compression (IAC), active compression-decompression (ACD), pneumatic and nonpneumatic circumferential chest compression, and minimally invasive cardiac massage. Many of these newer techniques, compared with standard manual CPR, appear to provide superior vital organ blood flow and increased blood pressure. To date, only IAC (in-hospital only) and ACD have been shown to improve long-term survival in clinical studies. Circumferential chest compression and minimally invasive cardiac massage, on the other hand, have not yet been adequately tested in large clinical trials. Despite the difficulty and expense in studying these CPR techniques, additional research is necessary to evaluate their effectiveness in improving survival after sudden cardiac arrest.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-41
Number of pages11
JournalPrehospital Emergency Care
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2003


  • CPR devices
  • CPR techniques
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Prehospital care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency


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