Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with increasing incidence and unpredictable behavior. Whole-exome sequencing has identified recurrent mutations in the genes DAXX and ATRX, which correlate with loss of protein expression and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Both ALT and DAXX/ATRX loss were initially reported to be associated with a favorable prognosis; however, recent studies suggest the contrary. Our aims were to assess the prevalence and prognostic significance of ALT and DAXX/ATRX in both primary and metastatic PanNETs. Experimental Design: Telomere-specific FISH and DAXX/ ATRX IHC was performed on a multi-institutional cohort of 321 patients with resected PanNET and 191 distant metastases from 52 patients. These results were correlated with clinicopathologic features, including disease-free survival (DFS) and diseasespecific survival (DSS). Results: The prevalence of ALT and DAXX/ATRX loss in resected PanNETs was 31% and 26%, respectively, and associated with larger tumor size, higherWHOgrade, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis (P < 0.001). The 5-year DFS and 10-year DSS of patients with ALT-positive and DAXX/ATRX-negative PanNETs were40%and 50%, respectively, as compared with96%and 89%, respectively, for wild-Type PanNETs. Among distant metastases, ALT and DAXX/ATRX loss was 67% and 52%, respectively, and only occurred in the setting of an ALT-positive and DAXX/ATRXnegative primary PanNET. By multivariate analysis, both ALT and DAXX/ATRX loss were negative, independent prognostic factors for DFS. Conclusions: ALT and DAXX/ATRX loss in PanNETs was associated with shorter DFS and DSS and likely plays a significant role in driving metastatic disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research