Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite, the majority of the cases were diagnosed as non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with favorable prognosis, it has tendency to recur or progress to a higher grade or stage. The first line treatment of patients with NMIBC is transurethral resection with adjuvant therapies primarily intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy. However, in a portion of patients whose BCG treatment failed, alternative treatments may be required. Furthermore, intravesical BCG may be contraindicated in or untolerated by a group of patients. For these patients, some treatment options are readily available and a variety of them are currently under clinical investigation. In this review, these alternative therapies have been summarized.
- Bladder cancer
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