A four-year prospective evaluation of the use of nonresorbable, particulate hydroxylapatite (HA) to augment deficient alveolar ridges was performed. The material was used alone and in combination with finely crushed autogenous cancellous bone. Implants were delivered subperiosteally by syringe injection, usually using local anesthesia for Class I to Class III ridges and general anesthesia for Class III and Class IV ridges. The improved ridge height and width were stable. Postoperative resorption with significant loss of ridge height, frequently seen with rib and iliac crest onlayed grafts, was not observed with HA augmentation. Permanent denture construction began as early as three weeks postoperatively and by four to six weeks if HA was combined with autogenous cancellous bone. It was possible to place mandibular staple implants simultaneously or following HA augmentation. Visor osteotomy techniques were improved by use of HA to produce a wider, more convex stable ridge. Although skin, mucosa, or dermal vestibuloplasties were performed as early as three months postoperatively in a small number of patients, there appeared to be a lesser need for vestibuloplasty after HA augmentation than after onlay bone grafting. In addition, prosthodontists performed fewer denture relines after HA augmentation than after onlay bone grafts. The authors believe the most significant factor accounting for these observations is the firm, nonmobile mucosal base resulting from augmentation with HA. The resultant stable, soft tissue base and improved ridge height and contour have contributed to a comfortable, retentive, stable denture for these patients. The prosthetic and surgical procedures are easier to perform and have produced superior, more permanent results than onlay bone grafts and alloplasts. Preliminary studies also point to exciting possibilities for use of HA as a bone substitute/marrow extender in maxillary and mandibular defects, cysts, and clefts and in osteotomies for orthognathic surgery.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Oral Surgery