An anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for deformable image registration accuracy validation in adaptive radiation therapy

Yuliang Liao, Linjing Wang, Xiangdong Xu, Haibin Chen, Jiawei Chen, Guoqian Zhang, Huaiyu Lei, Ruihao Wang, Shuxu Zhang, Xuejun Gu, Xin Zhena, Linghong Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for geometric accuracy and dose summation accuracy evaluations of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Method: Organ molds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra, and two metastasis tumors, were 3D printed using contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ molds were molded with deformable gels made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate. Gels with different densities were obtained by a polynomial fitting curve that described the relation between the Hounsfield unit (HU) and PVC-softener blending ratio. The rigid vertebras were constructed by molding of white cement and cellulose pulp. The final abdominal phantom was assembled by arranging all the fabricated organs inside a hollow dummy according to their anatomies, and sealed by deformable gel with averaged HU of muscle and fat. Fiducial landmarks were embedded inside the phantom for spatial accuracy and dose accumulation accuracy studies. Two channels were excavated to facilitate ionization chamber insertion for dosimetric measurements. Phantom properties such as deformable gel elasticity and HU stability were studied. The dosimetric measurement accuracy in the phantom was performed, and the DIR accuracies of three DIR algorithms available in the open source DIR toolkit-DIRARTwere also validated. Results: The constructed deformable gel showed elastic behavior and was stable in HU values over times, proving to be a practical material for the deformable phantom. The constructed abdominal phantom consisted of realistic anatomies in terms of both anatomical shapes and densities when compared with its reference patient. The dosimetric measurements showed a good agreement with the calculated doses from the treatment planning system. Fiducial-based accuracy analysis conducted on the constructed phantom demonstrated the feasibility of applying the phantom for organ-wise DIR accuracy assessment. Conclusions: We have designed and constructed an anthropomorphic abdominal deformable phantom with satisfactory elastic property, realistic organ density, and anatomy. This physical phantom can be used for routine validations of DIR geometric accuracy and dose accumulation accuracy in ART.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2369-2378
Number of pages10
JournalMedical Physics
Volume44
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017

Fingerprint

Radiotherapy
Gels
Anatomy
Polyvinyl Chloride
Spine
Fungi
Elasticity
Cellulose
Ovarian Neoplasms
Stomach
Spleen
Fats
Neoplasm Metastasis
Kidney
Muscles
Liver
Neoplasms
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Deformable gel
  • Deformable image registration validation
  • Phantom construction
  • Threedimensional deformable phantom

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

An anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for deformable image registration accuracy validation in adaptive radiation therapy. / Liao, Yuliang; Wang, Linjing; Xu, Xiangdong; Chen, Haibin; Chen, Jiawei; Zhang, Guoqian; Lei, Huaiyu; Wang, Ruihao; Zhang, Shuxu; Gu, Xuejun; Zhena, Xin; Zhou, Linghong.

In: Medical Physics, Vol. 44, No. 6, 01.06.2017, p. 2369-2378.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liao, Y, Wang, L, Xu, X, Chen, H, Chen, J, Zhang, G, Lei, H, Wang, R, Zhang, S, Gu, X, Zhena, X & Zhou, L 2017, 'An anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for deformable image registration accuracy validation in adaptive radiation therapy', Medical Physics, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 2369-2378. https://doi.org/10.1002/mp.12229
Liao, Yuliang ; Wang, Linjing ; Xu, Xiangdong ; Chen, Haibin ; Chen, Jiawei ; Zhang, Guoqian ; Lei, Huaiyu ; Wang, Ruihao ; Zhang, Shuxu ; Gu, Xuejun ; Zhena, Xin ; Zhou, Linghong. / An anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for deformable image registration accuracy validation in adaptive radiation therapy. In: Medical Physics. 2017 ; Vol. 44, No. 6. pp. 2369-2378.
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AU - Chen, Haibin

AU - Chen, Jiawei

AU - Zhang, Guoqian

AU - Lei, Huaiyu

AU - Wang, Ruihao

AU - Zhang, Shuxu

AU - Gu, Xuejun

AU - Zhena, Xin

AU - Zhou, Linghong

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N2 - Purpose: To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for geometric accuracy and dose summation accuracy evaluations of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Method: Organ molds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra, and two metastasis tumors, were 3D printed using contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ molds were molded with deformable gels made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate. Gels with different densities were obtained by a polynomial fitting curve that described the relation between the Hounsfield unit (HU) and PVC-softener blending ratio. The rigid vertebras were constructed by molding of white cement and cellulose pulp. The final abdominal phantom was assembled by arranging all the fabricated organs inside a hollow dummy according to their anatomies, and sealed by deformable gel with averaged HU of muscle and fat. Fiducial landmarks were embedded inside the phantom for spatial accuracy and dose accumulation accuracy studies. Two channels were excavated to facilitate ionization chamber insertion for dosimetric measurements. Phantom properties such as deformable gel elasticity and HU stability were studied. The dosimetric measurement accuracy in the phantom was performed, and the DIR accuracies of three DIR algorithms available in the open source DIR toolkit-DIRARTwere also validated. Results: The constructed deformable gel showed elastic behavior and was stable in HU values over times, proving to be a practical material for the deformable phantom. The constructed abdominal phantom consisted of realistic anatomies in terms of both anatomical shapes and densities when compared with its reference patient. The dosimetric measurements showed a good agreement with the calculated doses from the treatment planning system. Fiducial-based accuracy analysis conducted on the constructed phantom demonstrated the feasibility of applying the phantom for organ-wise DIR accuracy assessment. Conclusions: We have designed and constructed an anthropomorphic abdominal deformable phantom with satisfactory elastic property, realistic organ density, and anatomy. This physical phantom can be used for routine validations of DIR geometric accuracy and dose accumulation accuracy in ART.

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KW - Deformable image registration validation

KW - Phantom construction

KW - Threedimensional deformable phantom

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