Background: Actin cytoskeletal networks push and pull the plasma membrane (PM) to control cell structure and behavior. Endocytosis also regulates the PM and can be promoted or inhibited by cytoskeletal networks. However, endocytic regulation of the general membrane cytoskeleton is undocumented. Results: Here, we provide evidence for endocytic inhibition of actomyosin networks. Specifically, we find that Steppke, a cytohesin Arf-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), controls initial PM furrow ingression during the syncytial nuclear divisions and cellularization of the Drosophila embryo. Acting at the tips of ingressing furrows, Steppke promotes local endocytic events through its Arf-GEF activity and in cooperation with the AP-2 clathrin adaptor complex. These Steppke activities appear to reduce local Rho1 protein levels and ultimately restrain actomyosin networks. Without Steppke, Rho1 pathways linked to actin polymerization and myosin activation abnormally expand the membrane cytoskeleton into taut sheets emanating perpendicularly from the furrow tips. These expansions lead to premature cellularization and abnormal expulsions of nuclei from the forming blastoderm. Finally, consistent with earlier reports, we also find that actomyosin activity can act reciprocally to inhibit the endocytosis at furrow tips. Conclusions: We propose that Steppke-dependent endocytosis keeps the cytoskeleton in check as early PM furrows form. Specifically, a cytohesin Arf-GEF-Arf G protein-AP-2 endocytic axis appears to antagonize Rho1 cytoskeletal pathways to restrain the membrane cytoskeleton. However, as furrows lengthen during cellularization, the cytoskeleton gains strength, blocks the endocytic inhibition, and finally closes off the base of each cell to form the blastoderm.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)