Migraine headaches are a debilitating disease that causes significant socioeconomic problems. One of the speculated etiologies of the generation of migraines is peripheral nerve irritation at different trigger points. The use of Onabotulinum toxin A (BOTOX), although initially a novel approach, has now been determined to be a valid treatment for chronic headaches and migraines as described in the Phase III Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy trials that prompted the approval by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of chronic migraines. The injection paradigm established by this trial was one of a broad injection pattern across large muscle groups that did not always correspond to the anatomical locations of nerves. The senior author developed the Anatomical Regional Targeted BOTOX injection paradigm as an alternative to the current injection model. This technique targets both the anatomical location of nerves known to have causal effects with migraines and the region where the pain localizes, to provide relief across a wide distribution of the peripheral nerve. This article serves as a guide to the Anatomical Regional Targeted injection technique, which, to our knowledge, is the first comprehensive BOTOX injection paradigm described in the literature for treatment of migraines that targets nerves and nerve areas rather than purely muscle groups. This technique is based on the most up-to-date anatomical and scientific studies and large-volume migraine surgery experience.
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