Aaron Jay Yang, Nitin B. Jain

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Complete examination of the ankle should also include the foot and knee. Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common sports injuries encountered and the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is the most common ligament injured. Ankle inversion injuries are much more common than eversion injuries due to weakness of the lateral ligaments compared to the medial deltoid ligaments. Ankle sprains can be graded based on the presence or extent of a ligament tear. Grade 1 includes a stretch or partial ATFL tear, Grade 2 includes a complete ATFL tear with stretch or partial tear of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and Grade 3 includes complete tears of the ATFL and CFL. Appropriate physical examination and knowledge of special tests can help diagnose and allow proper grading of ankle injuries. Although ankle sprains are mostly thought of as a benign injury, inadequate healing time and rehabilitation can lead to prolonged symptoms and can mask other injuries around the ankle joint such as fractures and tendinopathies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPain Medicine
Subtitle of host publicationAn Essential Review
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages3
ISBN (Electronic)9783319431338
ISBN (Print)9783319431314
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Achilles tendon
  • Anterior draw test
  • Anterior talofibular ligament
  • Calcaneofibular ligament
  • Kleiger’s test
  • Syndesmosis squeeze test
  • Talar tilt test
  • Thompson’s test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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