The use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) was critical in the evolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) from a condition in which surgery was the standard of treatment to its becoming a medically managed condition. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in the management of VUR has been challenged in recent years, and significant confusion exists as to its clinical value. This review summarizes the critical factors in the history, use, and investigation of antibiotic prophylaxis in VUR. This review provides suggestions for assessing the potential clinical utility of prophylaxis.
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