In tumor-bearing animals, the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) suppresses immune responses, suggesting that PS signaling could counteract the antitumor effect of antibody-driven immune checkpoint blockade. Here, we show that treating melanoma-bearing mice with a PS-targeting antibody enhances the antitumor activity of downstream checkpoint inhibition. Combining PS-targeting antibodies with CTLA-4 or PD-1 blockade resulted in significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth than did single-agent therapy. Moreover, combination therapy enhanced CD4 and CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte numbers; elevated the fraction of cells expressing the proinflammatory cytokines IL2, IFNg, and TNFa; and increased the ratio of CD8 T cells to myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells in tumors. Similar changes in immune cell profiles were observed in splenocytes. Taken together, these data show that antibody-mediated PS blockade enhances the antitumor efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research