The prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of the kidney after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation are unknown. In 136 simultaneous pancreas-kidney recipients who were followed for an average of 3.1 yr, 21 episodes of AMR of the kidney allograft were identified. Eight episodes occurred early (≤90 d) after transplantation, and 13 occurred later. Histologic evidence of concomitant acute cellular rejection was noted in 12 cases; the other nine had evidence only of humoral rejection. In 13 cases, clinical rejection of the pancreas was diagnosed simultaneously, and two of these were biopsy proven and were positive for C4d immunostaining. Multivariate analysis identified only one significant risk factor: Female patients were three times more likely to experience AMR. Nearly all early episodes resolved with treatment and did not predict graft loss, but multivariate Cox models revealed that late AMR episodes more than tripled the risk for kidney and pancreas graft loss; therefore, new strategies are needed to prevent and to treat late AMR in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant recipients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas