Antibody response to DT-GM, a novel fusion toxin consisting of a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT) linked to human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM), during a phase I trial of patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia

Philip D. Hall, Gabriel Virella, Tony Willoughby, Daniel H. Atchley, Robert J. Kreitman, Arthur E. Frankel

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44 Scopus citations

Abstract

We are conducting a Phase I trial of a fusion toxin (DT-GM) for the treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The fusion toxin consists of a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT) linked to human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM). Prior to beginning the Phase I trial, our first goal was to determine whether healthy controls and adult AML patients had preexisting antibodies able to inhibit DT-GM. Sera from 5 of the 9 controls completely neutralized DT-GM by an in vitro bioassay to assess the inhibition of DT-GM. Sera from 43 patients with AML were tested by bioassay and a specific enzymoimmunoassay (EIA) for anti-DT-GM antibodies. Forty-two of 43 samples were positive by EIA, and 5 patients (11.6%) showed complete neutralization of DT-GM in the bioassay. Anti-DT-GM concentrations were significantly higher in samples demonstrating neutralization than in samples demonstrating no neutralization (P = 0.003). In the Phase I trial of DT-GM prior to therapy, none of 28 patients exhibited neutralization by bioassay, but 89% were positive by EIA. After the first course of DT-GM, 23% developed neutralizing antibodies by the bioassay, and 64% of patients exhibited an increase in their anti-DT-GM antibody concentrations by EIA. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical impact of the anti-DT-GM antibodies and whether the neutralization bioassay can be replaced by our EIA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-197
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Immunology
Volume100
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001

Keywords

  • Antibody
  • Myeloid leukemia
  • huGMCSF diphtheria toxin fusion protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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