In recent years, magnetic nanoparticles have played an increasing role in biomedical applications and have been the subject of extensive research investigations. Physical properties, including nanoparticle size, composition, and surface chemistry, vary widely and influence their biological and pharmacological properties and, ultimately, their clinical applications. Among different magnetic nanoparticles, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) were found nontoxic and used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, in molecular and cellular imaging applications. SPIOs are used in detection of liver metastases, metastatic lymph nodes, and inflammatory and/or neural degenerative diseases. In addition, drug delivery via magnetic targeting, hyperthermia, and labeling/∈tracking of stem cells have also been explored as potential therapeutic options.
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